I. Use the following words and phrases in sentences of your own:
to file, to fit, mating surfaces, face, a great number of, convex surfaces, triangular file, to prevent, strip
II. Retell the text giving answers to the following questions.
1. What is filing? 2. What tools are used for filing operations? 3. What operations are performed with a file? 4. What is the difference between a file and a chisel? 5. How is cutting performed with a file? 6. What files are used for filing depending on the shape of the surfaces to be finished?
|rhombic file, diamond-shaped file|
|half round file|
a- edge; b- face; c- handle
III. Supply antonyms for the following words:
flat, convex, soft, different
IV. Give the derivatives from the following words and translate them into Russian:
to differ, to operate, file, to fit, diagonal, to finish, to separate
V. Change the following sentences using the subordinate clauses instead of participle phrases and translate the sentences into Russian:
Example: Files with convex surfaces, preventing all their teeth from cutting at the same time, are used for filing convex and concave surfaces. Files with convex surfaces which prevent all their teeth from cutting at the same time are used for filing convex and concave surfaces.
1. Files are generally made with convex surfaces being thicker in the middle than at the ends. 2. Files having various shapes of cross-section such as square, flat, round, etc. are used in metal-cutting practice. 3. When filing convex surfaces one uses a half-round file. 4. A file is an instrument having teeth on its face. 5. Files are tools belonging to the group of locksmith's cutting instruments. 6. Files having single cut teeth are called "single-cut files". 7. For removing a large amount of metal one uses a coarse-pitched file.
VI. Make up questions to which the italicized words are the answers:
1. A file has a great number of fine cutting teeth. 2. These teeth are used for removing chips from the workpiece to be treated. 3. Depending on the shape of the surfaces to be filed various kinds of files are used. 4. No, flat files are not used for filing round holes. Round files are used. 5. No, knife files are not used for filing soft metals, but rasps are used. 6. Yes, diamond-shaped files are used for filing metal in narrow, places.
VII. Giving answers to the following quest ions describe Fig. 9:
1. What is a file? 2. What principal parts does a file consist of? 3. In what cases is a square file used? 4. Which file is used for filing angles'? 5. What material are diamond-shaped files made of? 6. In what cases are knife files used?
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