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CONTENTS

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1. Geographical position of the british isles............................................................ 2

TERRITORY AND STRUCTURE................................................................................. 2

SURROUNDING SEAS AND COASTLINE................................................................. 3

PHYSICAL STRUCTURE AND RELIEF...................................................................... 4

Highland Britain........................................................................................................... 4

England..................................................................................................................................................... 5

Wales......................................................................................................................................................... 5

Scotland.................................................................................................................................................... 6

Ireland....................................................................................................................................................... 7

Lowland Britain........................................................................................................... 7

RIVERS AND LAKES................................................................................................... 7

CLIMATE AND WEATHER.......................................................................................... 8

VEGETATION............................................................................................................. 10

MINERAL RESOURCES............................................................................................. 10

Coal............................................................................................................................ 11

Oil and Gas................................................................................................................ 11

Iron Ore...................................................................................................................... 12

Non-Metallic Minerals................................................................................................ 13

Water.......................................................................................................................... 14

2. Historical Outline.................................................................................................... 14

ANCIENT BRITAIN.................................................................................................... 14

The Roman Conquest and Occupation....................................................................... 15

The Growth of Feudalism in Britain. The Anglo-Saxon Conquest, the Struggle against the Danes.................................................................................................................... 15

The Norman Conquest and the Establishment of Feudalism in England.................... 17

ENGLAND IN THE MIDDLE AGES (11th—15th CENTURIES)............................... 19

The Economic and Social Development of the State.................................................. 19

The Development of Culture in Feudal England......................................................... 22

The Wars of the Roses, the Development of Absolutism in the 15th Century........... 24

THE DEVELOPMENT OF ENGLAND IN THE 16th CENTURY.............................. 25

The Reformation. Anglo-Spanish Rivalry. Colonial Expansion................................. 25

The Renaissance. The Literature and Culture of Tudor England................................ 27

THE ENGLISH BOURGEOIS REVOLUTION OF THE 17th CENTURY................... 29

The Economic and Social Development of the Country on the Eve of the Revolution.................................................................................................................. 29

The Restoration Period. The Compromise of 1688 and the Gradual Formation of Constitutional Monarchy........................................................................................... 34

Cultural Developments in the 17th Century............................................................... 37

THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE COUNTRY IN THE 18th CENTURY........................................................................................................... 39

Constitutional Monarchy........................................................................................... 39

Colonial Expansion and the Formation of the Colonial Empire................................. 40

The Industrial Revolution of the 18th — 19th Centuries and Its Consequences........ 43

The War of Independence and Its Effect on Britain.................................................... 44

England and the French Bourgeois Revolution of 1789............................................. 47



The National Liberation Movement in Ireland. The Act of Union (1801)................... 48

Science and Culture in the 18th Century.................................................................... 48

ENGLAND AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 19th CENTURY. THE PERIOD OF NAPOLEONIC WARS................................................................................................. 52

ENGLAND IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE 19th CENTURY..................................... 54

The Economic and Political Development of Britain after the Napoleonic Wars. The Period of Reaction...................................................................................................... 54

The Struggle for Parliamentary Reform. The Reform Act of 1832............................. 55

Post-Reform England................................................................................................. 58

Chartism and its Main Trends. The Historical Significance of Chartism.................... 59

BRITAIN IN THE FIFTIES-SIXTIES OF THE 19th CENTURY................................ 62

Britain — the 'Workshop of the World'..................................................................... 62

The Struggle of the Working Class for Its Rights....................................................... 65

English Science and Culture in the 19th Century....................................................... 66

GREAT BRITAIN AT THE END OF THE 19th AND AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 20th CENTURY........................................................................................................... 70

British Colonial Imperialism...................................................................................... 70

The Labour Movement............................................................................................... 72

Загрузка...

World War I............................................................................................................... 73

BRITAIN IN THE INTER-WAR PERIOD................................................................... 74

BRITAIN AND THE SECOND WORLD WAR........................................................... 79

POSTWAR BRITAIN................................................................................................... 81

CONTEMPORARY BRITAIN..................................................................................... 83

3. Population................................................................................................................ 89

4. State system............................................................................................................ 93

GREAT BRITAIN - A CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY........................................ 93

PARLIAMENT AND ELECTIONS.............................................................................. 94

HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT....................................................................................... 95

LEGISLATIVE PROCEEDINGS.................................................................................. 98

POLITICAL PARTIES AND TRADE UNIONS......................................................... 100

GOVERNMENT......................................................................................................... 104

5. National economy................................................................................................. 105

THE PLACE OF BRITAIN IN THE WORLD ECONOMY....................................... 105

CHIEF INDUSTRIES................................................................................................. 106

AGRICULTURE......................................................................................................... 108

TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS............................................................... 110

OVERSEAS TRADE.................................................................................................. 112

THE MAIN ECONOMIC REGIONS.......................................................................... 113

The South Industrial and Agricultural Region.......................................................... 113

The Midlands........................................................................................................... 116

Lancashire and Yorkshire......................................................................................... 117

North England.......................................................................................................... 119

Wales........................................................................................................................ 120

Scotland................................................................................................................... 121

Northern Ireland....................................................................................................... 123

6. The press, television and radio......................................................................... 125

7. Educational system.............................................................................................. 128

SCHOOL EDUCATION............................................................................................. 128

FURTHER EDUCATION........................................................................................... 132

UNIVERSITY EDUCATION..................................................................................... 132

8. British culture and arts in the 20th century...................................................... 134

LITERATURE............................................................................................................ 134

THEATRE.................................................................................................................. 137

CINEMA..................................................................................................................... 138

MUSIC........................................................................................................................ 138

ARTS.......................................................................................................................... 139

MUSEUMS................................................................................................................. 140

9. British character................................................................................................... 141

MAKING OF A CHARACTER.................................................................................. 141

PUBS AND CLUBS................................................................................................... 144

LEISURE AND SPORTS........................................................................................... 145

APPENDIX.................................................................................................................. 147

CHRONOLOGICAL OUTLINE................................................................................. 147

KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND FROM ALFRED......................................... 149

BRITISH PRIME MINISTERS AND GOVERNMENTS........................................... 150

 


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