Example: As the weather was fine, we went for a walk. – The weather being fine, we went for a walk. – Так как погода была хорошая, мы пошли гулять.
1. When temperature rises, more and more electrons in the valence band acquire sufficient energy to break bonds.
2. As the temperature reached the boiling point, the heater was switched off.
3. If the resistance is very high, the current in the circuit is very low.
IV. Прочитайте и перепишите следующие предложения. Определите, к какому типу условного предложения относится каждое из них. Переведите письменно предложение.
Example: Ice will turn into water if you heat it. – Условное предложение I типа. – Лед превратится в воду, если его нагревать.
1. If a solid body or a liquid is heated, it will usually expand.
2. If the Earth were as hot as Venus, the oceans would vapour.
3. Marconi wouldn’t have succeeded to transmit his first transoceanic message if he had attempted to transmit an entire sentence.
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Прочитайте текст. Постарайтесь понять его содержание. Выполните задания после текста.
1. Designers have long used computers for their calculations. Initial developments were carried out in the 1960s within the aircraft and automotive industries in the area of 3D surface construction and NC programming, most of it independent of one another and often not publicly published until much later.
It is argued that a turning point was the development of SKETCHPAD system in 1963 by Ivan Sutherland.
The distinctive feature of SKETCHPAD was that it allowed the designer to interact with computer graphically: the design can be fed into the computer by drawing on a CRT monitor with a light pen. Effectively, it was a prototype of graphical user interface, an indispensable feature of modern CAD.
2. First commercial applications of CAD were in large companies in the automotive and aerospace industries, as well as in electronics. Only large corporations could afford the computers capable of performing the calculations.
The most influential event in the development of CAD was the founding of MCS (Manufacturing and Consulting Services Inc.) in 1971 by Dr. P. J. Hanratty, who wrote the system ADAM (Automated Drafting And Machining)
3. As computers became more affordable, the application areas have gradually expanded. The development of CAD software for personal desk-top computers was the impetus for almost universal application in all areas of construction.
Other key points in the 1960s and 1970s would be the foundation of CAD systems United Computing, Intergraph, IBM in 1974.
CAD implementations have evolved dramatically since then. Initially, with 2D in the 1970s, it was typically limited to producing drawings similar to hand-drafted drawings.
4. The 1980s’ advances in programming and computer hardware have allowed more versatile applications of computers in design activities. Starting the late 1980s, the development of readily affordable CAD programs that could be run on personal computers began a trend of massive downsizing in drafting departments in many small to mid-size companies. As a general rule, one CAD operator could readily replace at least four or five drafters using traditional methods. Additionally, many engineers began to do their own drafting work, further eliminating the need for traditional drafting departments. This trend mirrored that of the elimination of many office jobs traditionally performed by a secretary as word processors, spreadsheets, databases, etc. became standard software packages that "everyone" was expected to learn.
Today CAD is not limited to drafting and rendering, and it ventures into many more "intellectual" areas of a designer's expertise. Computer aided design is used in many businesses and organizations around the world.
|eliminate||устранять (ошибки), удалять|
|CAD (computer-aided design)||компьютерное проектирование|
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