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I’M HAVING A LITTLE PARTY

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  7. An Unexpected Party

Стив собирает друзей посмотреть видеофильм о Великобритании и приглашает Марию.

- Привет, Мария! Как поживаешь?

- Привет! У меня все нормально. А как ты?

- Прекрасно! Никаких проблем! Чудесная погода, не так ли?

- Да, действительно, прелестно. Весна – тепло, солнечно.

- Ты занята в выходные? (Are you doing anything special at the weekend?)

- Нет, а что?

- Я организую небольшую вечеринку и хочу пригласить тебя.

- Спасибо. Это было бы неплохо. В котором часу?

- С половины восьмого до восьми.

- Прекрасно, договорились. До встречи.

- Увидимся. Не опаздывай.

 

WOULD YOU LIKE TO GO THE CONCERT?

Конец недели. Впереди выходные дни. Можно отдохнуть и развлечься. В городе на гастролях много известных артистов. Почему бы не пригласить девушку на концерт?

- Прекрасная погода, не так ли?

- Прелестно, льет как из ведра.

- Англичане говорят: «Какая бы ни была погода, мы вынесем любую погоду».

- Они – англичане. Хорошая погода или плохая, но завтра выходной.

- Замечательно! Почему бы нам не встретиться и не пойти на концерт?

- Хорошая идея! С большим удовольствием!

- Я зайду за тобой, ну, скажем, часов в 5. Подойдет?

- Да, это мне подходит. Буду ждать встречи с большим нетерпением.

 

D. Что бы Вы сказали в следующих ситуациях:

Ваш новый приятель Стив Грин оказался очень хорошим парнем. Он учится в университете и у вас много общего. Вы хотите пригласить Стива провести выходные дни вместе. Погода чудесная. Почему бы не поехать на побережье? Хорошая идея! Вы договариваетесь встретиться с субботу утром около общежития.

Роберту Фоксу нравится Мария. Они проводят много времени вместе. У Роберта есть прекрасные записи современных американских ансамблей. Он приглашает Марию послушать музыку и посмотреть слайды. Мария благодарит и принимает приглашение с большим удовольствием. Но когда? Сегодня вечером. Нет, она занята. Может быть завтра? Завтра она также не может. Может быть в выходные? В субботу всех устраивает. Итак, договорились: в субботу в 7 часов Роберт зайдет за ней. Он с нетерпением ждет встречи.

Тема 2. Family Life

BRITISH FAMILY

A “typical” British family used to consist of mother, father and two children, but in resent years there have been many changes in family life. Some of there have been caused by new laws and others are the result of changes in society. For example, since the law made it easier to get a divorce, the number of divorces has increased. In fact one marriage in every three now ends in divorce. This means that there are a lot of one-parent families. Society is now more tolerant than it used to be of unmarried people, unmarried couples and single parents.

Another change has been caused by the faсt that people are living longer nowadays, and many old people live alone following the death of their partners. As a result of these changes in the pattern of people’s lives, there are many households which consist of only one person or one adult and children.

You might think that marriage and the family are not so popular as they once were. However, the majority of divorced people marry again, and they sometimes take responsibility for a second family.

Members of a family – grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins – keep in touch, but they see less of each other than they used to. This is because people often move away from their home town to work, and so the family becomes scattered. Christmas is the traditional season for reunions. Although the family group is smaller nowadays than it used to be, relatives often travel many miles in order to spend the holiday together.



In general, each generation is keen to become independent of parents in establishing its own family unit, and this fact can lead to social as well as geographical differences within the larger family group.

 

Отметьте данные ниже предложения как истинные (T) или ложные (F):

1. Some of the changes in British family life are the result of new laws. ¨

2. Two marriages in three end in divorce. ¨

3. People are not living longer. ¨

4. Members of the family see each other more often. ¨

5. Relatives often spend Christmas together. ¨

6. Parents want to be independent of their children. ¨

AMERICAN FAMILY

A family may include parents and their children, grandparents, aunts, uncles and cousins, as well as more distant relatives. But when British and American people use the word family they often mean only a mother, father and their children.

Society in Britain and the US is traditionally based on a nuclear family living in the same house and closely involved in each other’s lives. Fifty years ago, the typical family was a husband and wife, and two or three children. The father spent all day at work and made most of the decisions about how the money he earned was spent. The mother stayed at home to manage the house and look after the children. Children were expected to obey their parents.

Many modern families live rather differently, and because of this some people think that the family unit is dying and society is being weakened. Many couples still get married, but others live together without getting married. Another trend is for people to get married later in life and to have fewer children, so the size of the average family is shrinking.

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Americans often move from city to city, so it is common for members of the extended family (=grandparents, aunts, uncles, etc.) to live far away. Families try to stay in contact with each other by writing and telephoning, and the Internet, by visiting occasionally, and sometimes by holding big family reunions. In Britain members of the same family may live close to each other and see each other regularly, but many do not.

Family loyalty is still important, and many people feel they have a duty to care for members of their family when they need it. But it is not part of British or American culture for old people to live with younger members of their family. Most elderly people live in their own homes and, when they cannot care for themselves, move into an old people’s home or a nursing home.

Some families are very child-centred (= put the children’s interests first). The closest families eat meals at the same time and spend their free time together. Some families, however, only see each other for a short time in the evening.

At the weekend families may go to sports games together, go shopping or go on trips to museums, parks, etc. In school holidays/vacations they may visit other family members or go to the beach.

American families are often criticized for they way they do things separately, though many people believe that it is good for children to learn to be independent. From an early age children are encouraged to decide what they want to do, eat or wear, and their parents try respect their opinions.

 

Тема 3. SPORT AND FITNESS

 

Text 1. A BIT OF HISTORY

Ancient Greek athletes competed in the nude which in Greek reads “gymnos”. That is why all physical exercises were called gymnastics, and the halls and schools where athletes trained – the gymnasiums.

Like many sports gymnastics was forgotten for 15 hundred years after the banning of the Olympic Games. Only in 1811 in Germany a new gymnasium opened and the revival of gymnastics began. Many gymnastics clubs were organized, it was taught in schools and armed forces.

In 1860 the first gymnastics competitions took place in Czechoslovakia and in 1912 gymnastics was included in the programme of the Olympics. At that time the competition included not only exercises on the floor or apparatuses, but also running, long jump and shot-putting which are part of athletics now.

 

Найдите в тексте эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений и подчеркните их:

соревновались обнаженным; а по-гречески - «гимнос»; запрещение; возрождение; гимнастические клубы; преподавали в школе; соревнования; проходили (о соревнованиях); была включена в программу; упражнения на снарядах; бег; толкание ядра; прыжок в длину.

 

Text 2. SWIMMING

It may seem strange that swimming was not included in ancient Olympic Games, though people had known it long ago. Both in ancient Greece and Rome swimming was as important as reading. Soldiers often sailed to other lands and fought on seas too. They were taught swimming for life-saving.

As a sport swimming was practiced in Japan. There swimming contests were held before the new era. Since the 17th century it has been taught in schools. But the Japanese did not let foreigners into their country. That is why it were Europeans who developed swimming and made it a sport.

One of the earliest swimming competitions in Europe was held in 1515 in Venice. In 1538 the first swimming handbook was published. First swimming schools began to appear at the end of the 18th century. Swimmers trained and contested mostly in rivers, ponds and lakes, which was only possible in summer. At the 19th century covered pools appeared and swimming became very popular. The first European championship was held in 1890. Six years later swimming became the Olympic sport.

DIVING

No one knows the first man who plunged into the water instead of just jumping. But historians found ancient pictures, which show divers. At first diving was used just for entering the water and then swimming. But the joy of flying through the air attracted fans, and a new sport appeared.

Mexican Indians were good at diving into the sea from high cliffs. Many people were able to leap from bridges and high river banks. At the end of the 19th century first diving platforms and springboards were taken to the beaches.

Diving was shown at the Olympic Games in 1900, and since 1901 it has always been in the Olympic programme.

WATER POLO

Water polo originated from England. Playing with a ball in the water looked like football. Usually there were no goal posts and players were to swim up and put the ball with their hands at some spot on the shore or elsewhere.

The first rules of this game were written down in 1877 by William Williamson, who also suggested that goal posts should be placed at each end of the field of play. This game soon won international recognition. The first international water polo was made part of the Olympics, and English sportsmen were the first winners of the Olympic gold medals.

 

Заполните пропуски соответствующими словами и выражениями из текста и расставьте предложения по порядку:

1. In Japan......................................were held before the new era. ( )

2. Swimmers .. ............................................. mostly in rivers, ponds and lakes. ( )

3. It may seem strange that swimming .................................................... in ancient Olympic Games. ( )

4. As a sport swimming ................................. in Japan. ( )

5. Soldiers often ………........ other lands and …………........ seas too. ( )

6. It were Europeans who developed swimming and ....................................... ( )

7. Water polo ..................................... England. ( )

8. Soon water polo .................................................................................... ( )

9. Historians found ancient pictures, which show....................... ( )

10. At the end of the 19th century first ................................................. were taken to the beaches. ( )

11. Mexican Indians…………………........ diving into the sea from high cliffs. ( )

12. Playing with a ball in the water ………………………......... football. ( )

 

Text 3. HANDBALL

Ball games were known all over the world for a very long time. In his “Odyssey” Homer tells about girls who played a ball made of wool with their hands.

Modern handball looks like both football and basketball. It was invented by a Danish teacher Nilssen in 1896. This new game quickly spread in Western Europe and in 1936 was played at the Olympic Games. But the next Olympic handball championship was held only 36 years later. In our country handball was fully recognized in 1959, when national competitions were held.

At the beginning there were two variants of handball which differed by the number of players. Teams could have either 7 or 11 players, and the game was played both indoors and outdoors. In our time the most popular is indoor seven-a-side handball of the court. The players of a team pass the ball to each other and mount an attack which often ends in the attempt to score the goal.

 

Найдите в тексте ответы на вопросы и подчеркните их:

1) What ancient poet mentioned the ball game played with hands?

2) Who invented modern handball?

3) When was the game first played at the Olympic Games?

4) When was the game recognized in our country?

5) What was the difference between two variants of handball?

6) What is the number of players in modern handball?

 

Text 4. VOLLEYBALL

Volleyball is not old. It is younger than basketball. Volleyball was invented by an American physical culture teacher William Morgan in 1895. He thought that basketball was only good for young people and invented a game for all ages.

In his game two teams of players struck a basketball with their hands and did not let it fall on the court. Then a tennis net was put between them at a man’s height. The basketball was heavy, so a new lighter ball was used. An important rule has been observed since that time: players must not catch, hold and throw the ball.

As in many other games, the volleyball rules changed as time went by. Many people liked and played volleyball which soon crossed the ocean and landed in Europe and Asia. It was very popular because the rules were as simple as the equipment for the game.

In our country volleyball quickly found its fans who played it at stadiums, beaches, squares and parks. A volleyball game was even shown on the stage of the Bolshoi Theatre. No wonder that our players have always been holding one of the first places in international competitions.

Oddly enough, volleyball was included in the Olympic programme only in 1964, though the world championship began in 1949. Our sportsmen, both men and women, won the top Olympic title three times and two times were in the second place. Their strongest opponents have always been the players from Japan.

 

Укажите, какие из утверждений не верны и дайте правильный вариант.

1. Volleyball is as young as basketball. ¨

2. William Morgan thought that basketball was good for all people. ¨

3. Players must not catch, hold or throw the ball. ¨

4. Volleyball was invented in America. ¨

5. The volleyball rules have never changed. ¨

6. Volleyball rules were not so simple as the equipment. ¨

7. In our country people played volleyball in different places. ¨

8. A volleyball game was not shown on the stage of the theatre. ¨

World championship began in 1964 though the game was included in the Olympic programme in 1949. ¨

9. The strongest opponents of our players were Japanese. ¨

 

 

Text 5. AMERICAN AND EUROPEAN SPORTS

AT THE END OF THE 19TH CENTURY

1. The years between 1880 and 1900 were the period when sports began to take their modern form. In the USA baseball was really a folk game. It developed out of older traditions. We know of more than two hundred teams that existed at the end of the Civil War. Some of them toured the country playing against rival teams. The first of many professional teams appeared in Cincinnati in 1869, and the present National League was organized in 1879. Baseball became the most popular sport in America. Baseball teams appeared in almost all of the towns and cities and high schools in America. It was not until after World War II that football and basketball became very popular everywhere in America.

2. The game that Europeans call football is called soccer in America. American football is a contact sport that is quite different from soccer. American football first appeared in the colleges. The first game of which we have a record was played in 1869 between Princeton and Rutgers. Both are colleges in New Jersey. The game spread to most of the colleges and universities in America. The teams are grouped together into “conferences”. Most of the conferences have about ten teams. The colleges and universities usually stay in the same conference year after year. During the fall football season, the teams usually only play against other teams in the same conference. One of the most important conferences is the Western Conference. It is nicknamed the “Big Ten” and it was organized in 1896. Later, professional teams appeared, and today very many people watch football games on television.

3. Basketball also developed in America. However, its history is different because a single individual in Springfield, Massachusetts invented it in 1891. Almost immediately, a committee was set up to establish its rules. Basketball does not have a folk tradition behind it in the way that baseball does.

The rules for boxing were developed in England in the 1870’s. The early world boxing champions were all English. In 1882, John L. Sullivan went to England and won the world boxing championship. When he returned to America, he brought the title with him.

Golf and tennis developed in Europe. The first American golf course was opened in Yonkers, New York, in 1890. The US Lawn Tennis Association was organized in 1881. The first international tennis competition was held in 1887.

4. The bicycles of the 1880’s had a high wheel in front and a small wheel in the rear. They were quite dangerous. In the 1890’s, they began making bicycles with both wheels of the same size. These were much safer. Bicycling became a sport, and in the cities it became a convenient method of transportation. By 1900, ten million Americans, mostly adults, were riding bicycles. These people pushed the local goverments into building better streets and roads. In 1899, a cheap way of making cement was invented. Soon after, they began paving streets for the bicycle riders.

 

Подберите заголовки к пронумерованным абзацам:

A. Sport that Improved Streets and Roads. ( )

B. Other Sports and Games. ( )

C. American Folk Game. ( )

D. American Football. ( )

 

Отметьте предложения как истинные (T) или ложные (F):

1. At the end of the Civil War there were less than two hundred teams. ¨

2. Baseball became the most popular sport in Australia. ¨

3. Basketball and football were very popular at the beginning of the 20th

century. ¨

4. American football is called soccer. ¨

5. “Conferences” are groups of American football teams. ¨

6. Teams play within the same conference in autumn. ¨

7. There are no folk tradition in basketball. ¨

8. In 1880s bicycles had two wheels of the same size. ¨

9. Wheels of the same size made bicycles safer. ¨

10. They began paving streets without cement. ¨

 

Text 6. WEIGHTLIFTING HISTORY

As a basic athletic activity and a natural means to measure strength and power, the lifting of weights was present in both the ancient Egyptian and Greek societies. Boosting its international importance chiefly in the 19th century, weightlifting was among those few sports (alongside athletics, swimming, gymnastics, fencing, wrestling, shooting and cycling) which featured already on the programme of the first Modern Olympic Games,(1)..................................... The first World Championships in this sport, however, had been staged five years earlier: (2) .............................................., in London, with 7 athletes representing 6 countries.

Weightlifting is thus the only sport whose history in world-wide competitions spans across three centuries: from 1891 through the 20th century until our days.

The power-relations have undergone major changes (3).............................. .

(4)......................................, Austria, Germany and France used to be the most successful nations. Later on, Egypt, then the United States of America reigned. In the 1950s and the following three decades the Soviet Union’s weightlifters played the protagonists’ role – with Bulgaria becoming a main challenger. Since the mid-‘90s, however, Turkey, Greece and China have catapulted to the lead. The most recent word power in weightlifting is Greece. (5)....................................... In the women’s field, China has been dominant since the very beginning, with other Asian countries emerging as strong contenders to the champion titles. On the overall, however, Europe is the most powerful continent in competitions of both genders.

The International Weightlifting Federation (IWF) today comprises 167 affiliated nations. Approximately ten thousand weightlifters participate annually in official competitions; weight training, however, is an indispensable tool for strength development (6)............................................and billions of people all over the world have workouts with the barbell for the sake of fitness. Entry figures of World Championships have increased year by year.

 

Заполните пропуски в абзацах (1-6) буквами (A-F), соответствующими данным ниже фразам:

a) for all sports;

b) At the beginning of the 20 th century;

c) in 1896, Athens;

d) on 28th March, 1891;

e) among the men;

f) over the past decades.

 

Text 7. CURRENT SPORT DISCIPLINES

Ice hockey was already held at the 1920 Summer Olympics and has been played in every celebration of the Winter Games. A women’s tournament was first

conducted in 1998.

Luge first entered the Olympic programme in 1964, and the three events conducted then are still unchanged. It included a singles event for both men and women, and a doubles event. The latter is technically open for both men and women, but in practice, only men compete.

Nordic combined, a combination of ski jumping and cross-country skiing, has been Olympic since 1924. Until 1988, when a team event was added, there was only an individual event. A third event, the sprint, made its debut in 2002. Only men compete in this sport.

Short track speed skating was a demonstration sport in 1988, and was included as a full sport four years later. The programme was expanded from 4 in 1992 to 8 in 2002. The events are the same for both men and women: 500 m, 1000 m, 1500 m and the relay (5000 m (men)/ 3000 m (women)).

Skeleton was included in both Olympics held in St. Morits (1928 and 1948), the birthplace of the sport. It was not held again until it was included again in 2002, with individual events for both men and women.

Ski jumping has been an Olympic sport since 1924, with the large hill event contested. A second event (normal hill) was introduced in 1964, and a team event followed in 1988. To date, this sport is only contested by men in the Olympics.

Snowboarding was first contested at the 1998 Olympics, with giant slalom and halfpipe events for both genders. The giant slalom was replaced by a parallel giant slalom for 2002, and in 2006 the snowboard cross event was added.

Speed skating has been on the programme since 1924. Women’s events were not included until 1960, although they were demonstrated in 1932 and had been on the preliminary programme for 1940. Current events are the 500 m, 1000m, 1500 m, 3000 m (women only), 5000 m and 10000 m (men only). The all-round competition was only contested in 1924. The team pursuit event made its debut in 2006.

 

Найдите в тексте эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений:

проводился (2 варианта), лыжный кросс, соревнование (одиночки), командные соревнования, конькобежный спорт, была расширена, эстафета, до настоящего времени, соревнования для женщин, гонки с преследованием.

 

Ответьте на вопросы:

1. What winter sport was included in Summer Olympics?

2. Are there still three luge events in the Olympic programme?

3. Who competes in luge double event?

4. What are the events in Nordic combined?

5. What sport was included as a full one in 2002?

6. Where did skeleton originate?

7. What sport events are large hill and normal hill?

8. What was giant slalom replaced by?

9. In what sport were women’s events included in 1960?

10. What event was contested only in the XXI century?

 

Text 8. SPORT AS A KIND OF HUMAN ACTIVITY

Sport used to be like fresh fruit and vegetables. Football had its season, then it ended, and you had to wait a while to get some more. Tennis was an explosion of Wimbledon at the end of June, Flushing Meadow in September and the Australian Open in January, and that was that. Now, just as you can get fresh strawberries all year round, there are major championships for every sport taking place somewhere in the world all of the time.

Why this obsession with sport?

What is it that makes sport so enjoyable for so many?

First, we seriously believe that sport is something we can all do, however badly or however well. Tens of thousands set off on the London and New York Marathons. Amateur football matches take place all over the world every weekend. Sport is a democratic activity.

Second, sports stars are self-made people. Sport is dominated by athletes from ordinary backgrounds. This is why it is a classic means by which those from the poorest backgrounds can seek fame and fortune. Third, we enjoy watching sport because we like to see the supreme skill of those who act like gladiators in the modern arena. There is the excitement of not knowing who is going to win. No rock concert, no movie, no play can offer that kind of spontaneous uncertainty. This gut-wrenching experience can be shared with a crowd of fifty round a widescreen TV in a pub, or a thronging mass of 100,000 live in a stadium.

The role of television

Television has been absolutely crucial to the growing obsession with sport. It gives increased numbers of people access to sporting events around the globe. With this, certain sports have accumulated untold riches via advertising, sponsorship and fees. Television changes sport completely, nearly always for the worse. We are saturated with football nearly every night of the week with the same top clubs playing each other again and again. TV companies dictate tennis players' schedules. The most important matches must take place at a time when most people are at home, even if this is late at night. Only in this way are the highest advertising fees commanded.

Sport as big business

The growing importance of sport is reflected in the money that surrounds it. Sky TV's sports channels are worth over £8bn. Manchester United football club is a public limited company worth around £lbn. It has even formed a superclub with baseball's New York Yankees, so that they can package themselves collectively. The rise of sport has been by the growing prominence of sports stars. They have become public figures hence in great demand for TV commercials. For advertisers, they convey glamour, success, credibility and authenticity. The rise of the sports star is mirrored by the rise of sports companies such as Nike and Adidas. Along with pop music, the Internet, and multinational companies, sport is one of the key agents of globalization.

Sport the global unifier

'Sport probably does more to unify nations than any politician has ever been capable of.' So said Nelson Mandela. The only truly global occasions are the Olympics and the World Cup, watched by thousands of millions across the world. These great sporting events bring together players and athletes from different races like no other. Not only that, but sport provides just about the only example of global democracy where the rich do not dominate: on the contrary, Brazilians have long been supreme at football, the Kenyans at middle-distance running, and black Americans at boxing.

The ultimate risk

However, there are signs of disquiet in this vast, global industry. The sheer volume of sport is reaching bursting point for all but the most besotted fan. In football, the president of FIFA has suggested staging the World Cup every two years instead of four, and overpaid tennis players and golfers fly endlessly in personal jets from one meaningless tournament to the next. Sport risks killing itself through greed and over­exposure. The danger is that we will all become satiated and ultimately disillusioned.

 

Выполните задания к тексту

1. What are the biggest sporting events in your country? In the world?

2. Read the article and answer the questions.

1. What is the correlation between sport and strawberries?

2. 'Sport knew its place.' What does this mean? Why doesn’t know its place any more?

3. How has TV changed sport? Has this change been beneficial or not?

4. Why is the London Marathon mentioned?

5. In what ways are most sports stars like everyone else?

6. What is the correlation between modern sports stars an ancient gladiators?

7. What can sport offer that a rock concert can't?

8. What is special about the Olympics and the World Cup?

9. Why is the besotted fan in a minority?

3. What do you think?

- Do you agree that our culture is obsessed by sport?

- Which sporting events are taking place now? Do you think there is too much sport in the world? Too much sport on television?

- ‘As individuals become rich, sport becomes impoverished.’ Can you think of any examples that support this opinion?

- Who are the sports icons of the moment? Why are they famous?

- Who do you think is more interested in sport, men or women? Why?

 

Раздел 2.

Социально-культурная сфера общения

Тема 1. Language as a Means of Cross-Cultural

Communication

Text 1. EASY ENGLISH?

1. English is an important language – but that doesn’t mean it’s easy to learn. Many experts have tried to make English easier for students to learn … but they weren’t always successful.

2. In 1930, Professor C.K. Ogden of Cambridge University invented Basic English … it had only 850 words (and just eighteen verbs!) and Ogden said most people could learn it in just thirty hours … The problem was that those people who learned Basic English could write and say simple messages … but they couldn’t understand the answers in “real” English! It was also Basic English word list; so if you wanted a water melon, you asked for “a large green fruit with the form of an egg, which has a sweet red inside and a good taste.”

3. R.E. Zachrisson, a university professor in Sweden, decided that the biggest problem for learners of English was spelling … so he invented a language called Anglic. Anglic was similar to English but with much simpler spelling. “Father” became “faadher,” “new” became “nue” … and “years” became “yeerz.” Sadly, Anglic never became popular.

4. Ever easier is the language which ships’ captains use: it’s called “Seaspeak.” Seaspeak uses a few simple phrases for ever possible situation. In “Seaspeak”, for example, you don’t say “I’m sorry, what did you say?” or “I didn’t understand, can you repeat that?” … it’s just “Say again.” No more grammar!

5. In the age of computers and international communication through the Internet, who knows? … a new form of English might appear. A large number of the world’s e-mail messages are in English and include examples of NetLingo like O.I.C. (Oh, I see!) and T.T.Y.L. (Talk to you later). In another fifty years English as we know it might not exist … we will probably all speak fluent Internetish!!

 

Прочитайте текст и укажите, в каком абзаце говорится:

- about a man who invented a new English with a smaller vocabulary? ¨

- about a man who tried to change the spelling of English? ¨

- whether English is easy? ¨

- about how e-mail is changing English? ¨

- about a form of English which people use at sea? ¨

 

Text 2. THE FIVE AGES OF ENGLISH

Old English.

From about the ninth century, the Vikings – who lived in (1)_______________ and Norway, began to arrive in the north of England. The language people spoke began to change. In the south of England, people began to translate books from Latin into English.

Middle English.

In 1066, (2)_________________ and French became the official language. Most educated people had to speak three languages: (3)________________! At this time, English literature began to develop. One of the most famous writers was the poet Geoffrey Chaucer (4) _______________. His language is a little like the English of today.

Early Modern English

(1450-1750)

This period includes the time of (5) _____________ - England’s greatest writer. By the end of the seventeenth century, great scientists, like Isaac Newton, wrote in English, not in Latin. The British Empire began, and the English language traveled across the Atlantic (6) ___________, and across Asia _______.

Modern English

(1750-1950)

English was now a national language. The first dictionary – (7) ____________ - appeared in 1755, and the first grammar books appeared soon after.

As the British Empire grew in the nineteenth century, English became a more international language. People began to learn English around the world. The (8)____________ textbooks appeared in the 1930s.


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II. FIRST CONTACTS| Late Modern English

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