Accented group is a smallest rhythmic unit of a phrase (rhythmic group).
Accented group is determined by a number of syllables in a stressed word a number or unstressed syllable adjacent to it. The minimum accented group consists of one stressed syllable, e.g. ˈ Stand | ֻ still.
As far as most of words have stress on the first syllable the accented group begins with a stressed syllable. Unstressed syllables are called enclitics.
e.g. ˈFinish | ˈExercise | ˈTwenty ֻSeven.
If a notional word starts with unstressed syllable or it follows one or several form-words connected in meaning, the rhythmic group has proclitics(unstressed syllable or syllables preceding the first stressed syllable)
e.g. I'd ˈlike | to ˈgive them | a ˈpiece | of a ֻdvice.
1). Proclitics are pronounced more rapidly than enclitics. Because of this factor the rhythm of a phrase is easily regulated.
e.g. ˈ Meet | ˈ Mary | at the ֻstation.
ˈ Meet | me at the ˈstation | at ֻsix
2). According to the rule of sentence stress (interchange of stressed and unstressed syllables) some of the notional words become unstressed or half-stressed (partially stressed)in order not to break the rhythm of the whole sentence.
e.g. I can ˈgive | them ˈmany | ֹnice ֻpictures.
Partial stressrests on the words which don't carry the new information and in order not to break the rhythm of the whole sentence and to avoid the monotony of a long syntagm.
e.g. ˈCan you ˈsee a ’tree in the ֹpicture?
I ˈthink this is the ֻbest ˌarticle.
By speech tempo we mean the relative speed of utterance which is measured by the rate of syllable succession and the number and duration of pauses in a sentence. The average rate of delivery may contain from about two to four syllables per second for slow speech, from about three to six syllables for normal speech, and from about five to nine syllables for fast speech.
Every speaker has a norm which characterizes his usual individual style of utterance. Some people speak more quickly, some more slowly; some people use. more variations of tempo than others. Tempo is a feature, which like loudness can be varied from time to time by the individual speaker.
The rate of speaking varies constantly. When two strongly stressed syllables occur close together, it is slower; when they are separated by unstressed syllables the speed is faster. The speed of utterance becomes slower or faster according to the number of unstressed syllables between the stressed ones.
Differences of rate are used to help the listener to differentiate the more important (slow rate) and the less important (fast rate) parts of the utterances,
e.g. I want you to understand that it is very important.
We slow the last part of the sentence down and lengthen out the syllables to get a stronger impression than if we say it at normal speed. An increase in the speed of the utterance may show it is less important,
e.g. His own plan, he now saw, would fall through.
Rate also performs emotionaland attitudinal functions. It varies according to the emotional state of the speaker and the attitude conveyed.
Fast rate, for instance, may be associated with anger, scolding, etc.,
e.g. Where's the hammer? What did you do with the hammer? Great heaven! Seven of you,
'gaping round there, and you don't know what I 'did with the hammer. (Jerome K.
Jerome. "Three Men in a Boat")
Slower than normal rate may be associated with anger, doubt, blame, accusation, etc.,
e.g. Mrs. Warren (passionately): What's the use of my going to bed? Do you think I
Voice: 'Why not? I shall.
Mrs. Warren: You! You've no heart. (B. Shaw. "Mrs. Warren's Profession")
Variations of rate of speech and pausation are closely connected with different phonetic styles, shades of meaning and the structure of the intonation group.
Rate is varied by the speaker in accordance with the situation in which he is involved. The speaker should always choose the proper rate suitable for the occasion, if he wants to be clearly understood. A teacher will speak to a group of beginners learning English at a slower rate than when he speaks to a native speaker. Rate should be adapted to the content of the ideas expressed and the phonetic style. It should always be slow enough to attract the attention of the listeners and at the same time be rapid enough to sustain interest.
Pausation is closely connected with the other components of intonation. The number and the length of pauses affect the general tempo of speech. A slower tempo makes the utterance more prominent and more important. It is an additional means of expressing the speaker's emotions.
Pauses made between two sentences are obligatory. They are longer than pauses between sense-groups and are marked by two parallel bars /Ц/. Pauses made between sense-groups are shorter than pauses made between sentences. They are marked I lt I \l, I \\L
Pauses are usually divided into filled and unfil ed, corresponding to voiced and silent pauses. Silent pauses are distinguished on the basis of relative length: brief, unit, double and treble. Their length is relative to the tempo and rhythmicality norms of an individual
Pauses play not only segmentative and delirnitative functions, they show relations between utterances and intonation groups, performing a unifying, constitutive function. They play the semantic and syntactic role, e. g. There was no love tost between them (they loved each other). There was no love j lost between them (they did not love each other).
Attitudinal function of pausation can be affected through voiced pauses, which are used to signal hesitation, doubt, suspence. Such pauses have the quality of the central vowels /э, s:/. They may be used for emphasis, to attach special importance to the word, which follows it.
5As it was mentioned before an intonation pattern is referred to as one of suprasegmentals which consists of one or more syllables of various pitch levels bearing a larger or smaller degree of prominence and performs a certain function in an utterance.
There exist 15 basic (intonation) patterns of speech melody in English which fall into 7 principal groups:
a) intonation patterns with the low (medium)falling nuclear tone (final, categoric, detached, cool, dispassionate, reserved, dull, etc.);
b) intonation patterns with the low rising nuclear tone (non-final, non-categoric, encouraging further conversation, guarded);
c) intonation patterns with the high falling nuclear tone (conveying personal concern, involvement, interest, etc.);
d) intonation patterns with the high rising nuclear tone (calling for repetition, echoing);
e) intonation patterns with the falling-rising nuclear tone (unpleasantly surprised, puzzled, sometimes disapproving);
f) intonation patterns with the rising-falling nuclear tone (impressed, awed, expressing complacence);
g) intonation patterns with the mid-level nuclear tone conveying the impression of non-finality, expectancy, hesitation, sometimes calling out to someone as from a distance.
The problem of intonation, its definition, structure and function.
No definition of intonation is completely satisfactory but the most appropriate one is that intonation is a complex unity of all sound means of a language.
There is a wide agreement among the Soviet linguists that on perception level intonation is a complex, a whole, formed by significant variations of pitch, loudness and tempo (i.e. the rate of speech and pausation) closely related. Nowadays there is another term “prosody” which embraces the three prosodic components and substitutes the term “intonation”.
Some linguists regard speech timbre as the fourth component of intonation but though it conveys certain shades of attitudinal and emotional meaning there is no good reason to consider it along the main prosodic components of intonation.
In terms of the structure of intonation no unity was reached among the scholars. But there exist an interesting theory put forward by P. Roach (“English Phonetics and Phonology”, 1991) who introduced the 3 groups of the main components of intonation in English on sequential, prosodic and paralinguistic level. They are as follows:
1) on sequential level;
– pre-heads, heads, tonic syllables and tails;
– tone-unit boundaries.
2) on prosodic level;
– width of pitch range;
– key (rhythm);
– voice quality (timbre).
3) on paralinguistic level
– vocal effects (laughs, sobs).
According to P. Roach the functions of intonation are as follows:
1. Attitudinal function. Intonation enables us to express emotions and attitudes and adds
special kind of ‘meaning’ to spoken language.
2. Accentual function. Intonation produces the effect of prominence on syllables.
3. Grammatical function. Intonation enables the listener to recognize the grammar and syntactic structure of the utterance.
4. Discourse function. Intonation signals ‘new’ and already ‘given’ information, indicates the sort of contrast or link with material in another tone-unit, and the kind of response expected.
Another way of categorizing functions of intonation is given in The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language:
1. Emotional function. Intonation expresses a wide range of attitudinal meanings.
2. Grammatical function. Intonation plays an important role in the marking of grammatical contrasts.
3. Information structure. Intonation conveys a great deal about ‘new’ and ‘old’ information.
4. Textual function. Intonation marks the structure of sentences
5. Psychological function. Intonation helps to organize language into units that are more easily perceived and memorized.
6. Indexical function. Intonation helps to identify people as belonging to different social groups and occupations.
But the most common point of view shared by most linguists is that intonation performs in the sentence the following functions:
1. The constitutive or sentence forming function. Intonation organizes words into utterances.
2. The distinctive function or sentence distinguishing function. Intonation also serves to distinguish communicative types of sentences, the speaker's emotions or attitudes to the content of the sentence, to the listener or to the topic of the conversation. One and the same word sequence may express different meaning when pronounced with a different intonation pattern.
3. Sentence delimiting function. Intonation delimits one intonation group / sense-group / phonopassage from another by means of pauses.
4. Attitudinal function. Intonation expresses the speaker’s attitude towards what he says
Regional types of the English language
Regional type of English pronunciation
As far as the British English is concerned we can mention 2 pronunciation types:
1) large original type;
2) local dialects.
The British Isles fall apart into 3 types:
1) Southern English (RP);
2) Northern English;
3) Standard Scottish.
London region which in the 16th century became socio-economic centre made its pronunciation a leading one all over the country.
As to the Northern English it has some distinguished features: besides remaining instead of there was another change ( ).
(Scot.) instead of
Instead of English you may hear a diphthong
This peculiarity was later on carried to Australia.
In all words containing ‘h’ together with ‘w’, h is heard first instead of w:
which – hwich
But it should be wrong to think that all these peculiarities, are typical for all the dialect. They are common in some of them only.
Practice of life shows that dialectical pronunciation is enveloping a great part of population of Great Britain and the RP as many phoneticians say “is the accent of minority of English population”.
Received Pronunciation as an accepted norm in studying English
Most of us have an image of such a normal or standard English in pronunciation and very commonly in Great Britain this is RP, often associated with the public schools, Oxford, and the BBC. Indeed, a pronunciation within this range has great prestige throughout the world, and for English taught as a foreign language it is more usually the ideal than any other pronunciation. But as far as the English-speaking countries is concerned this RP approaches the status of a ‘standard’ almost only in England: educated Scots, Irishmen, Americans, Australians, and others have their own, different images of a standard form of English.
Even in England it is difficult to speak of a standard in pronunciation. For one thing, pronunciation is infinitely variable, so that even given the will to adopt a single pronunciation, it would be difficult to achieve. The word ‘dance’ may be pronounced in a dozen ways even by people who do not think of themselves as dialect speakers: there is no sure way of any 2 people saying the same word with precisely the same sound. In this respect, pronunciation much more closely resembles handwriting than spelling. In spelling, absolute distinctions can be learnt and imitated precisely, while 2 person’s handwriting and pronunciation have obvious differences, without our being able to say which is better or more standard.
But sociological changes have reduced the prestige of RP. Professor Robert Graves wrote in 1961: “In my day you very seldom heard anything but Oxford English; now there is a lot of north country and soon. In 1920 it was prophesied that the Oxford accent would overcome all others. But the regional speech proved stronger. A good thing.”
The English literary pronunciation and its orphoepic norm.
The English national spoken language is not a uniform. It represents some variety from locality to locality where people speak different dialects. The problem is: the phonetic difference in pronunciation. We should keep only this in mind. The same can be observed in any language. In English the dialects differ in grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation.
e.g. in Northern Scottish we know that in the 17th century ubecame , but still there exists a strong tendency to pronounce uin the words spelt with ‘u’:
/ l υk /- luck
/ bυs /- bus
Most of the dialects became a literary language, but in spite of it some deviations are present. At school standard pronunciation is taught as far as it is used by educated speakers. In the long history of English colonial rule the British pronunciation was spread over the USA, New Zealand, Canada, Australia, South Africa. In all these countries types of pronunciation have many features in common, but many differ because each country had its own way of development.
The difference between RP, general American type (GA) and Australian pronunciation.
American English is considered to be one of the variants of English. There are some reasons for it. They have many features in common:
1) the grammatical structure;
2) the basic stock of words.
The difference lies in the pronunciation of some vowels, consonants, accentuation and intonation.
But in the 30-s some reactionary linguists propagated the theory of the separate American language due to its exclusiveness, its domination over other languages. He called American-English a kind of genius of American spirit. The aim was clear: it was world domination and expansion of the USA. All this stands contrary to historical facts and was criticised by many linguists.
American English falls into 3 types:
3) General American. (GA)
The Eastern and Southern types have many features in common.
Southern type is characterised by a drawl. This drawl in the way of pronouncing vowels as diphthongs or vice versa.
e.g. That - / /
But the most standard is GA type. Here we observe many distinctions.
e.g. in consonants GA has the so-called retro-flex variety of English / r /. It’s a certain curling of the tip of the tongue:
/r/ is not pronounced in full form, it only prolongs the vowel a little.
V.A.Vassiliev used a term “/r/ - compensating vowels”.
eg. The phoneme / / in GA is used only as a dark variant / t / is very short and more voiced near to / d /, before / m, n, l, r, j, w /.
Americans when pronouncing / t, d / use a certain glottal stop, which is called oblitera-
eg. certainly / /
The consonant / j / is not pronounced in GA before / u: /
eg. student / stu:d nt /
/ / is vocalised in final unstressed syllable.
/ / - / /
1) / / is more open
4) / e / is a lower front vowel; “very fine!”
5) / a: / - / /, more open, / d ns /
6) / / = / / box / /, god / /.
One of the distinguishing features of GA is monophtongisation of diphthongs.
eg. brown / /
The American descriptiveness consider / / to be bi-phoneme combinations, the glide is weakened and becomes unpronouncible.
One of the striking features is strong nasalization of vowels.
There is a difference between RP and GA within the accentual system.
1) in words of French origin GA tends to have stress on the final syllable.
ballet - / / - / /
beret - / / - / /
2) some words in GA have first-syllable stressed while in English it may be elsewhere
/ / - / /
/ / - / /
/ / - / /
/ / - / /
3) some compound words have stress on the 1st element in GA (RP – 2nd syllable)
GA – “weekend”, ice-cream
4) polysyllabic words ending in –ory, -ary, -mony have secondary stress called tertiary.
English intonation is often characterised as having wider melodic curve and more rapid curve changes than American intonation.
Intonational style and their prosody
Informational style- is often referred to as "formal", "neutral", since (in an ideal setting) in its pure manifestation, it is least of all influenced or correlated by extralinguistic factors (purpose, participants, setting -окружение).
It is purely manifested in the written variety of an informational narrative read aloud. The majority of these texts is of a purely descriptive character and is simply called descriptive narratives. The ideal manifestation of this style is reading such texts in class. They may be labeled as educational informational descriptive narratives.
In recent years it has become fashionable to acknowledge the importance of spoken rather than reading. Consequently skill in reading now is either low or inadequate. There is a gap between spoken and written varieties of the eg; they differ psychologically and intellectually. Reading and speaking each requires differently directed intensive efforts, so the phonetic features of these varieties are basically different.
Prosodic analyses of reading
1) to describe the speech (extralinguistic) situation (purpose, participant setting).
The main purpose is to give information, the voice timbre is distinctly resonant, the speaker sounds rather disimpassionate and reserved.
2) to define other extralinguistic factors (the degree of preparedness) - prepared, half-prepared; quazi-prepared (read beforehand).
3) prosodic level (delimitation) - phonopassages phrases intonation groups. Pauses are mostly at syntactical junctures, normally of median length.
4) Prosodic features:
Loudness - stable, normal, but within a phonopassage boundaries there's a gradual decrease of it.
Levels and ranges - decrease of levels and ranges within the passage.
Rate - normal or rather slow, not noticeably varied.
Rhythm - systematic, properly organized.
Pauses - syntactical of normal length, occasional emphatic ones for semantic accentuation.
5) accentuation of semantic centres.
Terminal tones - LF and occasionally HF final categoric falls, in non-final segments mid-level and LR tones are often used.
Pre-nuclear patterns - falling and level heads or several falls within one interpausal unit.
The contrast between accented and unaccented segments of phrases is not great, i.e. the stress is equally distributed on accounted syllables of pre-nuclear patterns.
ACADEMIC (SCIENTIFIC) STYLE
Attention here is focused on a lecture on a scientific subject and reading aloud a piece of scientific prose. This type of speech occurs in the written variety of English in one-sided form of communication (monologue), in prepared, public, formal discourse (рассуждение, лекция, доклад, речь; беседа разговор). The lecturer's purpose is threefold:
1. to get the 'message' of the lecture across to the audience;
2. to attract and direct the attention of the audience to the 'message';
3. to establish contact with the audience and maintain it throughout the lecture. To achieve these goals the lecturer uses a specific set of intonational means:
Timbre - authoritative, imposing, edifying, instructive, self-assured;
Loudness - increased, sometimes to forte;
Levels and ranges - remarkably varied with the passage segments; gradual decrease within the supraphrasal unity.
Rate - normal slow, on the most important parts of the lecture (rules, conclusions, examples); rate is as flexible as the lecturer wishes it to be.
Pauses - rather long, especially between the phonopassages; a large portion of pauses serving to bring out communicatively important parts of utterances; occasional use of breath-taking pauses.
Terminal tones - compound terminal tones (High Fall + Low Rise, F-R,R-F-R,a great number of High categoric Falls).
Pre-nuclear Patterns - stepping and falling heads, alternation of descending and ascending (climbing) heads, especially in enumerations
The contrast between the accented and unaccented segments in not great.
SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS AND FEATURES OF THE ACADEMIC STYLE NOT SHARED BY OTHERS.
1. Conveys both intellectual and volitional information; attitudinal and emphatic functions of intonation are of primary importance.
2. A talk should be prepared and rehearsed by a trained lecturer, so the timbre of speech is self- assured, edifying, authoritative, instructive.
Loudness is very high, the diminished loudness is observed only while expressing forgetfulness, uncertainly word-searching.
4. Prosodic features are rather varied. This variety is created by:
a), the alternation of pauses, types of heads, pitch levels and terminal tones.
b). variations and contrasts of tempo.
5. The rhythmical organization is properly balanced which gives the impression of 'rhythmicality'.
6. High - Fall and Fall - Rise are used as both logical and contrastive emphasis.
The term "publicistic" serves for many kinds of oratorical activities that's why this intonational style is called "oratorial". It is a very broad label because there is a great deal of overlap between academic, publicistic and declamatory style when the basic arm of the speaker is to extend persuasive and emotional influence on the listeners. In publicistic speeches this purpose is achieved through all sorts of direct oratorial performances. These performances are designed to entertain the public thus accomplishing the purpose of imposing the speaker's ideas on listeners.
This is especially noticeable in public political speeches of some politicians, whose appeals to the nation are overloaded with all sorts of oratorical tricks and are characterized by various contrasts in all prosodic features to produce a complex vocal effect, thus making addresses more effective.
The manifestation of this style is heard in political, juridical, oratorical speeches, in sermons, parliamentary debates, at congresses, meetings, press conferences, etc.
It has long been believed that oratorial skills need special training, therefore special schools of public speech makers were established throughout the centuries and all over the world. It's evident that intonation was of primary importance and needed accurate training.
Another important thing is that publicistic style speeches are never spontaneous. It is generally accepted that any professional talk is a "voyage", and it is strongly advisable not to use any notes while speech performance because they destroy the listener's interest.
Basically political speeches, addresses of governments tend to be very formal, so a great number of "high-flown" phrases, set expressions are common to this type of the style, however in publicistic speeches of other kind-speeches of famous writers, public figures, peace fighters, etc. There may be deviations from formality and a contrast is often seen between the highly formal and rather ordinary and even colloquial language, when various illustrations, examples, comparisons, jokes and quotations are produced. So a good speaker is aware of a proper balance between intelligibility, pronounceability, relative dignity, formality and informality.
As any publicistic speech is fully prepared and even rehearsed, it usually goes smoothly and with ease, without hesitation devices. It is marked by it's dignified slowness, careful articulation and impressive resonance on the most important communicative centres and properly rhythmically organized.
Public speakers are very enthusiastic about what they say and how they say, so they may go to extremes by enormously increasing the loudness alternating it with whisper or pronouncing very long breath groups and suddenly interrupt the phonation by using the rhetorical silence.
Timber - dignified, self-assured, concerned, personally involved.
Delimitation - phonopassages, phrases, intonation groups.
Loudness - enormously increased but sometimes instances of diminished loudness are observed.
Ranges and levels - greatly varied, predominant are wide ranges; a very high level of the start of the initials groups.
Rate - moderately slow, showing down to bring out communicatively important centers; acceleration of speed within less important information.
Pauses - definitely long between the passages; a great number of breath-taking pauses; a rather frequent stop of phonation before the emphatic semantic center; 'rhetorical silence' is often used to exert influence on the public.
Rhythm - properly organized, which produces the acoustic effect of strict rhythmicality.
Terminal tones — mostly emphatic, falling-rising tones are frequent in non-final groups; terminal tones are contrasted to distinguish between formal and less formal segments of speech.
Pre-nuclear patterns - common use of descending falling and stepping heads, a large number of accidental rises; another 'rhetorical' trick is subordination of tones, when high level head may be alternated with the low level head, especially in enumerations.
The contrast between accented and non-accented segments - not great.
Paralinguistic features - a great number of facial expressions, bodily movements, gestures.
This intonational style is also called as artistic, acquired or stage! It is referred to as a highly emotional and expressive one and needs special training. It fells into 2 main varieties:
1) Reading aloud a piece of descriptive prose (the author's speech).
2) The author's reproduction of actual conversation (the speech of the characters).
The intonation of reading descriptive prose has many features in common with that of reading scientific prose. The same set of intonational means is used but the frequency of their occurrence is different. The prosodic organization of such texts depends upon the type of theatrical performance - whether it is a tragedy, drama or comedy - and on the serial factors - the social and cultural background of the play characters, their relation ship, extralinguistic context, etc.
The declamatory reading displays a great variety of intonation property depending on the types of written texts. The prose which describes an action or a series of actions is called narrative.
Ex: Though it was nearly midnight when Andrew reached Bryngower, he found Ire Morgan waiting for him walking up and down with short steps between the closed surgery and the entrance to the house.
The prose describing scenes, objects, people, person's feelings in such a way that we can imagine it vividly is called descriptive.
Example: We got out at Sonning and went for a walk round the village. It is a most fairy-like little nook on the whole river. It is most like a stage village that one builds of bricks and mortar. Every house in smothered in roses and now, in early June, they where bursting forth in clouds of dainty splendour.
(J. K. Jerome. "Three Men in a Boat")
The conversations are strikingly different from the prose (conversational style). But you should bear in mind that most literary texts comprise descriptions, narratives and dialogues.
Timbre — concerned, involved, emotionally rich.
Loudness - varied the size of audience and emotional setting.
Levels and ranges - variable
Rate - deliberately slow for the listener to understand the author's message completely; the speed is changed to the syntactic structure, importance of information and the degree of emphasis. Pauses - long, a great number of emphatic pauses occurs.
Rhythm - properly organized.
Terminal tones - categoric low and high falls in final and initial intonation groups, occasional use of rising and level tones to break the monotony.
Pre-nuclear patterns - varied for both emphatic and non-emphatic use. For the emphasis such patterns are used: Low Head+ HF High Head + LF High Head+ HF Step Head+ HF The contrast between accented and unaccented segments is not great
CLASSIFICATION OF THE ENGLISH CONSONANTS
(as Compared with Ukrainian Consonant Phonemes)
I. According to the manner of the production of noise and the type of obstruction the English consonant are divided into three groups:
1) occlusive (the consonants in the articulation of which the organs of speech form a complete obstruction).
a) plosives / p, b, t, d, k, g / (the complete obstruction is broken by the stream of air). The Ukrainian plosives are: [П, Б, Е, Л, Г].
b) nasal sonorants / m, n, ŋ / ( the stream of air escapes through the nasal cavity).
The Ukrainian nasal sonorants are: [М, Н].
2) constrictive (the consonants in the production.of which the organs of speech form a narrowing through which the stream of air passes);
a) fricative consonants / f, v, θ, ?, s, z, ʃ, ʒ, h/ (the stream of air passes with audible friction).
b) constrictive sonorants (the stream of air passes without any audible friction).
The latter are subdivided into centraland lateral.
– central sonorants / w, r, j / and Ukrainian [Й] (the sides of the tongue are raised and the stream of air escapes from the mouth cavity along the centre of the tongue).
–lateral sonorants / l / and Ukrainian [Л] (the stream of air escapes from the mouth cavity along the sides of the tongue which are towered).
3) affricates ( the organs of speech first form a complete obstruction which is immediately replaced by narrowing. The air blocked at first by the complete obstruction escapes with a hissing sound).
The English affricates are: / ʧ, ʤ/, the Ukrainian are [Ц, ДЗ, Ч, ДЖ].
II. According to the active organs of speech and the place of obstruction consonants are divided into labial, lingual and pharyngal.
a) bilabial/ p, b, w, m /, the Ukrainian [П, Б, М, В] (the obstruction is formed by two lips which form either a complete obstruction or a narrowing);
b) labio-dental / f, v /, the Ukrainian [Ф, B] before [И, E] ( the upper teeth and the lower lip form a narrowing through which the stream of air passes with friction);
2) lingual (the obstruction is formed by the tongue).
a) forelingual (the obstruction is formed by the tip of the tongue.);
–interdental/ θ, ð / (pronounced with the tip of the tongue slightly projected out between the upper and lower teeth);
There are no interdental consonants in Ukrainian, but there are dental consonants which are pronounced with the tip of the tongue near the lower teeth. They are: [T, Д, H].
–alveolar/ t, d, s, z, l, n/ (the tip of the tongue is either held close or pressed against
the alveoli forming a narrowing or a complete obstruction);
–post-alveolar / r, ʃ, ʒ, ʧ, ʤ /, the Ukrainian [Ш, Х, Ч, ДЖ] (the tip of the tongue held close or pressed to the back of the alveoli);
b) medio-lingual/ j /(articulated with the central part of the tongue raised to the hard palate);
c) backlingual/ k, g / (the back part of the tongue and the soft palate form a omplete obstruction);
3) pharyngal / h/ ( the walls of the pharynx are slightly contracted);
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