As this innovative course Geology & Petroleum Engineering is an implementation of a content-based EFL curriculum, it includes the following components:
Course Book- Geology & Petroleum Engineeringis the core book that students will need for class work. Special focus is placed on the development of learner autonomy, where three principles: individualization, interdependence and interaction are integrated. It has two parts:
Part I - Introduction which includes 4 common topics: Petroleum Engineering, Oil Companies, Petroleum Geology and HSE (Health, Safety and Environment);
Part II – includes 7 sustained content courses, organized around specific themes and topics. In these course materials conveyed content information is on such topics as Geophysics, Oil Exploration, Pipeline Engineering, Drilling, Ore Mining, Hydroecology and Geoecology. These courses are free-standing sections. There are Appendixes for additional information, which can be used for pairwork activities and self- assignments.
Guideline- Guide to Effective Technical Writing & Professional Communication is a course where academic subjects are taught in English. It is tailored to the specific needs of students in their technically oriented majors. It will aid those who plan to continue technical careers that require sufficient knowledge of technical writing and professional communication. A CD is available which includes presentations on all discussed topics.
Teacher’s Book –gives recommendations of advisory character. It offers keys for every unit in both parts and introduces a framework for structuring and shaping the whole course material and references for the teacher’s convenience.
Test Booklet – includes reviewsections for each part and unit. These tests take around an hour to complete and they revisit and consolidate key language from earlier studied sections and units.
Recordings –includes all listening material in Part I(Introduction),available in CD form.
This course would not have been possible without the knowledge we acquired during the past 10 years through consulting, teaching and conducting workshops at Tomsk Polytechnic University. Many people have contributed in a variety of ways in the preparation of this innovative course «Geology & Petroleum Engineering». We would like to thank the specialists of Geology & Petroleum Engineering Institute, TPU, all of whom brought their professionalism and expertise to guiding and shaping this course in its various stages. Our special thanks to Associate Professor of Tomsk State University Olga Nagel, our indefatigable reader and Associate Professor, Head of English Language Department, TPU N. Kachalov, our editor.
For providing a stimulating working environment, we would like to thank Director of Geology & Petroleum Engineering Institute, Professor E. Yazikov and Associate Professor V. Bernatonis.
Petroleum engineering refers to the subsurface engineering activities related to the production of hydrocarbons which can be either crude oil or natural gas.
Fill in the spidergram with the words associated with Petroleum engineering.
Explain your associations.
Terms and Vocabulary
|upstream||pазведка и добыча / Блок Разведки и Добычи (м.б. Апстрим)|
|downstream||переработка и сбыт / Блок Переработки и Сбыта (м.б. Даунстрим)|
|well completion||заканчивание скважины|
|implement||внедрять, вводить в действие|
|artificial lift||механизированная добыча|
|downhole flow control||регулирование дебита скважины|
|workover||капитальный ремонт (КРП)|
|lease||контракт на аренду нефтеносного участка|
|bit program||программа использования буровых долотам|
|probability analysis||анализ вероятности|
|enhanced oil recovery||добыча нефти с искусственным поддержанием энергии пласта|
|interface||поверхность раздела (двух фаз или слоёв жидкости)|
|regulatory body||регулирующий закон|
|hydrocarbon recovery||добыча, отбор (нефти, газа из коллектора); отдача (коллектора)|
|surveillance||осмотр; обследование; технический надзор; контроль|
|material balance (modeling)||материальный баланс|
|inflow \ outflow||приток \ выход|
|simulation modeling||(имитационное) моделирование|
|layout||план \ схема|
|formation breakdown via toolbox layoff savvy||разрыв пласта посредством чего-л. инструментарий приостановка сообразительность; смекалка|
|be involved in||связанный, вовлеченный|
|refer to||направлять; отсылать; обращаться|
|be hеld to||держаться, придерживаться|
|be compared to||сравнивать; сопоставлять|
|be contended with||утверждать; оспаривать|
|become commonplace in||привычное дело|
|be concerned with||имеющий отношение к чему-л., связанный с чем-л.|
|of particular interestto||особый интерес|
|play a (central) role in||играть, исполнять роль|
|in charge of (N)||ответственный за|
|be measured in||измеренный, замеренный|
|in conjunctionwith||в соединении; в связи|
|cover a wide range of||(охватывать) широкий диапазон|
Read and remember the pronunciation.
[i:] complete, completion, deplete, depletion, increasingly, recent, scheme, machine, upstream, downstream, continuous
[e] bury, estimate, vendor
[o:] wellbore, forecast, audit, hydraulics, support
[ə:] survey, reserves, concerned, refer, subsurface, curve, thermodynamics
[ju:] consumer, computer, accurate, numerical, value
[ai] provide, supply, decline, design, divide, specify, high, type, optimize, maximize
[aiə] require, acquire, environment, via
[k] mechanics, chemistry, scheme, technique
Pay attention to the stress in the following words.
3. Read the text, fulfill the exercises
Petroleum engineering is involved in the exploration and production activities of petroleum as an upstream end of the energy sector. Upstream refers to the process of finding and extracting oil, which is usually buried deep beneath the earth's surface, to provide a continuous supply to consumers "downstream". Petroleum engineering covers a wide range of topics, including economics, geology, geochemistry, geomechanics, geophysics, oil drilling, geopolitics, knowledge management, seismology, tectonics, thermodynamics, well logging, well completion, oil and gas production, reservoir development, and pipelines.
Petroleum engineering has become a technical profession that involves extracting oil in increasingly difficult situations as the "low hanging fruit" of the world's oil fields are found and depleted. Improvements in computer modeling, materials and the application of statistics, probability analysis, and new technologies like horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery, have drastically improved the toolbox of the petroleum engineer in recent decades.
As mistakes may be measured in millions of dollars, petroleum engineers are held to a high standard. Deepwater operations can be compared to space travel in terms of technical challenges. Arctic conditions and conditions of extreme heat have to be contended with High Temperature and High Pressure (HTHP) environments that have become increasingly commonplace in today's operations require the petroleum engineer to be savvy in topics as wide ranging as thermohydraulics, geomechanics, and intelligent systems.
Petroleum engineers mustimplement high technology plans with the use of manpower, highly coordinated and often in dangerous conditions. The drilling rig crew and machines they use becomes the remote partner of the petroleum engineer in implementing every drilling program. Petroleum engineers have historically been one of the highest paid engineering disciplines; this is offset by a tendency for mass layoffs when oil prices decline. According to a survey published in Dec 2006 the average income was $116,834.Petroleum engineers divide themselves into several types:
Reservoir engineering is a branch of petroleum engineering, typically concerned with maximizing the economic recovery of hydrocarbons from the subsurface.
Of particular interest to reservoir engineers is generating accurate reserves estimates for use in financial reporting to the SEC and other regulatory bodies. Other job responsibilities include numerical reservoir modeling, production forecasting, well testing, well drilling and workover planning, economic modeling, and PVT analysis of reservoir fluids.
Reservoir engineers also play a central role in field development planning, recommending appropriate and cost effective reservoir depletion schemes such as waterflooding or gas injection to maximize hydrocarbon recovery.
Reservoir engineers often specialize in two areas:
Drilling engineering is a subset of petroleum engineering, involved in the design and drilling of production and injection wells. The planning phases of drilling an oil well typically involve estimating the value of sought reserves, estimating the costs to access reserves, acquiring property by a mineral lease, a geologic survey, a wellbore plan, and a layoutof the type of equipment depth of the well.
Drilling engineers are engineers in charge of the process of planning and drilling oil wells. Their responsibilities include:
It is their responsibility to ensure that the well is drilled in a safe, cost-effective, and effective manner.
4. Match the English terms in column “A” with their Russian equivalents in column “B”.
|2.enhanced oil recovery||B.заканчивание скважины|
|4.production||D. добыча нефти усовершенствованным методом|
|5.drilling rig crew||E. нагнетательная скважина|
|6.reservoir development||F. добыча|
|7.well completion||G. истощённый (о запасах)|
|8.well logging||H.разработка пласта|
Study the words in the box. Give the dictionary definition. Find these words in the text and explain their meaning.
|be contended to be held to be savvy in be concerned with be involved in in charge of be measured in in conjunction with|
Find the synonyms to the following words.
To deal with, to put into operation, simulation, to improve, to exhaust, to finish, evaluating, observation, to be responsible for,
Find the antonyms to the following word in the text.
Outflow, above, downstream, to minimize, beginning
Decipher the following abbreviations used in the text.
SEC, PVT, HTHP,
Fill in the gaps with the appropriate prepositions.
1. Easily accessible oil can be compared_____low hanging fruits. 2. Petroleum engineers are _____charge of implementing high technology plans with the use of manpower. 3. Drilling engineering is concerned ____designing and drilling oil wells. 4. The profession of petroleum engineering is involved______ exploration and extraction of oil. 5. Designing casing a string is performed in conjunction ______ drilling fluid plans. 6. Reservoir engineers optimize production of oil and gas ________proper well placement and enhanced oil recovery.
Give the English equivalents to the Russian words.
1. Petroleum engineers (придерживаются) to a high standard as mistakes may cost too much. 2. High Temperature and High Pressure conditions have become (обычное явление) in today’s oil recovery. 3. Petroleum engineering (охватывает широкий диапазон) of topics, including geology, geophysics, and geochemistry. 4. Generating accurate reserves estimates is (представлять особый интерес) to reservoir engineer. 5. Petroleum engineer should be (осведомлен, находчив) in topics as wide ranging as thermohydraulics and geomechanics. 6. The remote partner of the petroleum engineer is (буровая бригада) in implementing drilling program.
An English-English dictionary helps you to understand different terms. Look up the words in the box. Match the terms with the definitions.
|petroleum engineer upstream reservoir oil well hydrocarbons crude oil downstream petroleum casing|
|1. Petroleum engineer||A. Compounds which contain only carbon and hydrogen. Petroleum consists of them.|
|2. Reservoir||B. A fuel found in mineral deposits under the ground. It comes from the Greek words for “rock” and “oil”. Therefore, rock oil or oil found in rock.|
|3. Hydrocarbons||C. Pipes run in a hole and cemented during drilling in order to consolidate well bore walls and prevent their collapse.|
|4. Downstream||D. A professional trained in the drilling, completion and production of oil and gas. Types of petroleum engineers include drilling, completion and reservoir engineers.|
|5. Upstream||E. A porous and permeable formation containing an individual and separate natural accumulation of producible hydrocarbons. It is confined by impermeable rock or water barriers and is characterized by a single natural pressure system.|
|6. Oil well||F. Exploration, drilling and production operations for crude oil and natural gas.|
|7. Crude oil||G. A well completed for the production of crude oil from at least one oil zone or reservoir.|
|8. Petroleum||H. Transportation and pipe lining, refining and marketing operations for crude oil and natural gas.|
|9. Casing||I. A mixture of hydrocarbons that existed in a liquid phase in natural phase in natural underground reservoirs and remains liquid ay atmospheric pressure after passing through surface separating facilities.|
Classify the responsibilities of a reservoir engineer and a drilling engineer into two groups.
Estimation of cost to access reserves, maximization of economic recovery of hydrocarbons from the subsurface, numerical reservoir modeling, geologic survey, well drilling and workover planning, estimation of the sought reserves value, development of contacts with vendor, PVT analysis, wellbore plan, production forecasting.
Complete the sentences, using the information from the text.
1. According to the survey published in December 2006 ………
2. Deepwater operations can be compared to …………………….
3. Such modern technologies as ……………… have improved the toolbox of the petroleum engineer.
4. Petroleum engineering covers a wide range of topics including …..
5. Petroleum engineers can be divided into several types: …………..
6. Two areas in which reservoir engineers usually specialize are ……
According to the text the operations are performed in the following order. Put the phrases in the logical order.
A geologic survey
Acquiring property by mineral lease
A layout of the type of equipment depth of the well
Estimating the value of reserves
A well bore plan
Estimating the cost of access reserves
State whether the sentences are true or false. If true, add the information on the statement. If false, correct the sentence.
1. Petroleum engineering covers a wide range of disciplines.
2. Operation in HTHP environment is a rare case for a petroleum engineer today.
3. Petroleum engineers are usually well paid.
4. Petroleum engineers deal with oil field close to the Earth’s surface.
5. Petroleum engineers are subdivided into two types.
6. Reservoir engineering is concerned with reservoir modelling.
7. Drilling engineers have to perform PVT analysis of the well.
PART 1. Read the following information, then listen to the tape and match the dates with the stages of petroleum engineering development.
|1. The 1910’s||A. It was recognized that the characteristics of the oil reservoir had to be taken into consideration.|
|2. The 1920’s||B. Consolidation and integration of four elements took place in petroleum engineering.|
|3. The 1930’s||C. Petroleum industry research developed. It was directed toward the principles, processes and methods for improvement of oil recovery.|
|4. The 1950’s||D. Petroleum engineering was recognized as a new field of practice|
|5. The 1990’s||E. Petroleum engineering centered on the drilling, completing and producing activities associated with individual wells.|
PART 2. Listen to the second part of the text once more; give the examples on the methods of each element.
|Elements||Examples of methods|
|1. Extending the capabilities|
|2. Development of methods for detailed study of subsurface formations and surroundings|
|3. Recovering a greater portion of the oil within reservoir|
|4. Development of technological management and its introduction into business decision making|
Answer the following questions.
1. What topics does PE cover?
2.How has the toolbox of the petroleum engineer been drastically improved?
3. Can you say that petroleum engineers are held to a high standard?
4. What is vital for a petroleum engineer?
5. Why is petroleum engineers considered to be the highest paid disciplines?
6. What are the types of petroleum engineers?
7. What PE branches do you know?
8. What do reservoir engineers specialize in?
9. What fields are drilling engineers involved in?
10. What processes are drilling engineers responsible for ?
Read the extracts from www.conocophollips.com. Report back to your group-mates. Answer any possible questions.
a. E&P in ConocoPhillips explores for, produces and markets crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids (NGL) on a worldwide basis. It also mines deposits of oil sands in Canada to extract the bitumen and upgrade it into a synthetic crude oil. A continued strategy is the ongoing development of legacy assets — very large oil and gas developments that can provide strong financial returns over long periods of time.
b. Although the recent moderation in energy prices may suggest a shift in market circumstances, we believe the fundamental forces that have driven prices upward since 2001 have not changed. For the long term, global energy demand will persistently push the limits of available supply. At ConocoPhillips, their mission as one of the largest publicly held energy companies is to increase supplies to consumers through actions and investments that simultaneously build value for shareholders. During 2006, they made substantial progress in accomplishing that mission.
c. Access to resourceshas become an increasingly difficult task for publicly held companies. Direct foreign investment in exploration and production projects is prohibited in some of the most resource rich nations. Elsewhere, governments have limited the attractiveness of foreign investments through taxation, and other actions inhibit the economic incentive to participate. Furthermore, ongoing political instability in several producing nations has created excessive risks for new ventures. Despite the industry’s strong performance in environmental protection, high-potential areas in the United States have been placed off-limits to energy development.
d. A production engineer in different oil companies is usually responsible for: monitoring & interpreting existing well production; identifying and pursuing optimization opportunities from wellbore to sales point; working closely with field staff supporting their day-to-day operations as well as being involved in formal project work and well reviews; preparing economic evaluations for operating capital and significant expense production projects; assessing innovative optimization opportunities for implementation.
e. A drilling engineer in different oil companies usually provides drilling engineering support in preparation of well plans and execution of daily operations; ensures that wells are planned and executed in a safe, cost effective, and environmentally responsible manner while adhering to all company core values, corporate safety policies, and local regulations; has a right level of technical and operational experience in order to provide engineering support for all types of wells including exploration, development, HTHP (high temperature high pressure), and deepwater, utilizing all types of rigs.
f. A reservoir engineer job usually completes the following duties: provides appraisal, development and production optimization expertise; attends data rooms and perform high level studies in support of business development initiatives; conducts reservoir characterization and reservoir management studies; conducts exploration analysis using in-house probabilistic tools and methodologies; attends peer reviews and peer assists in support of exploration & development projects.
19. Work in pairs
You are going to explore a new oil field. Student A -a reservoir engineer and Student B - a drilling engineer. Discuss the distribution of your responsibilities and order of operation. Use as many expressions under study as possible.
1. The significance of petroleum engineering nowadays.
2. The reasons for high payment for petroleum engineering job.
3. The main types of petroleum engineers.
4. Reservoir engineers (their responsibilities, areas of specialization).
5. Drilling engineers (their responsibilities, areas of specialization).
Imagine that one of you is a TV/Radio Presenter with an oil industry background and the rest are the representatives of an oil company and you are having 5 min talk show regarding the company you work for, your roles and responsibilities and current energy sector state.
22. Prepare a poster -presentation “My specialty, its perspectives and future”.
|artificial lift||механизированная добыча|
|bit programs.||программа использования буровых долотам|
|casing string||обсадная колонна|
|cement plans||план цементажа (цементирования)|
|cost effective reservoir depletion scheme||Экономически-эффективная схема выработки месторождения|
|decline curve analysis||анализ кривой падения добычи|
|deepwater operations||производственные процессы на глубокой воде|
|directional plans||схема направления бурения|
|downhole flow control||регулирование дебита скважины|
|downstream||переработка и сбыт / Блок Переработки и Сбыта (м.б. Даунстрим)|
|drilling engineer||инженер по бурению|
|drilling fluid||буровой раствор|
|drilling program||программа бурения|
|drilling rig crew||бригада буровиков|
|economic modeling||экономическое моделирование|
|economic recovery||экономически целесообразная добыча|
|enhanced oil recovery||интенсифицированная добыча нефти|
|field development planning||схема разработки месторождения|
|formation breakdown||разрыв пласта|
|gas injection||закачка газа|
|geomechanics||механика горных пород|
|horizontal drilling||горизонтальное бурение|
|in house||не выходя за рамки организации|
|inflow / outflow analysis||анализ притока / оттока жидкости|
|injection well / injector||нагнетательная скважина|
|knowledge management||система управления знаниями|
|material balance modeling||моделирование материального баланса|
|numerical reservoir modeling||числовое моделирование пласта|
|oil and gas production||добыча нефти и газа|
|oil field||нефтяное месторождение|
|optimize production||оптимизировать добычу|
|petroleum engineering||геология и нефтегазовое дело|
|producers / production well||добывающая скважина|
|production engineer / completion / subsurface engineer / surveillance||инженер по добыче нефти и газа / инженер по эксплуатации (инженер- эксплуатационник)|
|production forecasting||прогнозирование объемов добычи|
|production level||уровень добычи|
|PVT analysis of reservoir fluids||анализ PVT данных пластовой жидкости (флюида)|
|regulatory bodies||контролирующие органы власти|
|reserves estimate||оценка запасов|
|reservoir||коллектор (продуктивный пласт)|
|reservoir development||разработка месторождения|
|reservoir engineer||инженер -разработчик|
|sand control||борьба с выносом песка|
|SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission)||Комиссия по ценным бумагам и биржам (США)|
|Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE)||Общество инженеров-нефтяников (США)|
|sought reserves||искомые запасы|
|technical challenges||технические сложности|
|tectonics||тектоника (структурная геология)|
|upstream / Upstream||pазведка и добыча / Блок Разведки и Добычи (м.б. Апстрим)|
|well completion||заканчивание скважины|
|well drilling||бурение скважины|
|well logging||геофизические исследования скважин (каротаж скважины)|
|well placement||система расположения скважин|
|well testing||испытание скважины|
|wellbore plan||дизайн скважины|
|workover planning||планирование КРС (капитальный ремонт скважины)|
Oil company is an industry that produces and delivers oil and oil products.
Name all the Western and Russian oil companies you know.
What company would you like to work in? Why?
What position would you like to occupy?
Terms and Vocabulary
|crude oil||сырая нефть|
|natural gas||природный газ|
|retail outlets||предприятия розничной торговли|
|natural gas liquids (NLG)||сжиженный газ|
|headquarters/head office/central office||центральный офис|
|core business||основной вид деятельности|
|high gravity||высокий удельный вес|
|оpen joint stock company||открытое акционерное общество (ОАО)|
|market value||рыночная стоимость|
|seismic acquisition||сейсмические исследования|
|seismic processing||обработка сейсмических данных|
|formation evaluation||определение параметров пласта|
|well testing||испытание скважины|
|directional drilling||наклонно-направленное бурение|
|report to smb.(v)||докладывать/ описывать|
|Asset Based Organisation (ABO)||организационная структура на базе активов|
|functional approach||функциональный подход|
|allocate budget||распределять бюджетные средства|
|set targets||устанавливать цели/плановые показатели|
|HR (Human Resources)||отдел кадров|
|General Director||ген. директор|
|Chief Engineer||главный инженер|
|Chief Geologist||главный геолог|
Read the words, remember the pronunciation.
[a:] advantage, plant, demand
[ə:] search, fertilizer, refer, entrepreneur
[u:] crude, include, lubricant
[ju:] pharmaceutical, consumer, fuel, butane
[ou] own, negotiate, solely
[e] head, head office, headquarters, immense, synthetic
[ ∫ ] negotiate, initial
Read the following word formations and remember their pronunciation Pay special attention to the stress
Market – marketer – marketing
Refine – refinery – refinement
Explore – exploration – exploratory
Produce – producer – production
Dominate – dominated - dominance
Pay attention to the following abbreviation that can be found in this unit
|RTS - Russian Trading System||HSE - Health, Safety and Environment|
|NYSE - New-York Stock Exchange||LSE - London Stock Exchange|
|ABO - Asset Based Organisation||HR - Human Resource|
|NLG - Natural gas liquids||EVP – Executive Vice-President|
|GD - General Director||CEO – Chief Executive Officer|
|CFO – Chief Financial Officer|
Scan the text and fulfill the tasks
Оil Industry Sectors
The entire oil industry is often divided into three major sectors: upstream, midstream and downstream.
Downstream (oil industry)
The downstream oil sector is a term commonly used to refer to the refining of crude oil, and the selling and distribution of natural gas and products derived from crude oil. The downstream sector includes oil refineries, petrochemical plants, petroleum product distribution, retail outlets and natural gas distribution companies. The downstream industry touches consumers through thousands of products such as gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, heating oil, asphalt, lubricants, synthetic rubber, plastics, fertilizers, antifreeze, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, natural gas and propane
Upstream (oil industry)
The upstream oil sector is a term commonly used to refer to the searching for and the recovery and production of crude oil and petroleum natural gas. The upstream oil sector is also known as the exploration and production (E&P) sector. The upstream sector includes the searching for potential underground or underwater oil and gas fields, drilling of exploratory wells, and subsequently operating the wells that recover and bring the crude oil and/or raw natural gas to the surface.
Midstream (oil industry)
However, midstream operations are usually simply included in the downstream category The midstream sector processes, stores, markets and transports commodities such as crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids (NGL) such as ethane, propane and butane.
The process of oil production, transportation, refinery and sale is managed by oil companies (producers). But there are also service companies that work as contractors to the oil companies. These are deeply involved in the oil business providing services that help oil companies to carry out their operations.
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|The Approach and Principles|||||Fill in the spidergram with the words associated with Petroleum engineering.|