There are 650 muscles in the human body. The muscles are fibers, characterized by their contractile abilities. The muscle consists of the muscular fibers connected together by connective tissue. Blood vessels and nerves are in the muscle. Muscles contraction and relaxation causes most body movements. The muscles are subdivided into three groups. These groups are the muscles of the trunk, head, and limbs.
As for the structure the muscles are divided into three major parts: skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Skeletal muscle with its associated connective tissue comprises approximately 40% of the body's weight and is responsible for facial expressions, posture, and many body movements. Its function is controlled by our consciousness. Smooth muscles are in the walls of hollow organs and tubes, in the internal portions of the eyes, in walls of blood vessels, and in other areas. Smooth muscles perform a variety of functions, including propelling urine through the urinary tract, mixing food in the stomach and intestine, dilating and constricting the pupil, and the regulation of blood flow through blood vessels. Cardiac muscles are found only in the heart, and their contractions provide the major force for propelling blood through the circulatory system. Unlike skeletal muscles, smooth and cardiac muscles contract spontaneously.
As for the form of the muscles they can be long, short, and wide. The long muscles form the limbs, the short ones compose the facial part, and the wide muscles form the walls of the body cavities.
Muscles are attached to bones, internal organs, and blood vessels. Most skeletal muscles extend from one bone to another and cross at least one joint. Some muscles of the face, however, are not attached to bone at both ends but they are attached to the skin, which moves when the muscles contract.
Muscles are named according to their location, size, number of heads, or function.
Location. Some muscles are named according to their location. For example, a pectoral (chest) muscle is located in the chest, and a brachial (arm) muscle is located in the arm.
Size. Muscle names may also refer to the size of the muscle. For example, the gluteus maximus (large) is the largest muscle of the buttock, and the gluteus minimus (small) is the smallest muscle of the gluteal group.
Shape. Some muscles are named according to their shape: the deltoid(triangular) muscle is triangular.
Orientation. Muscles are also named according to the structure of their fibers: an obliquemuscle lie oblique to the longitudinal axis of the body.
Number of heads. The number of heads, which a muscle has, may also be used in naming the muscle. A bicepsmuscle has two heads.
Function. Muscles are also named according to their function. Anabductormoves a structure away from the midline.
Ex. 12. Translate the following words and word-combinations into English:
Скорочуватись; скорочувальна здатність; м’язові волокна з’єднуються разом; гладкий м’яз; супутня з’єднувальна тканина; рух; вираз обличчя; розширюватися; спонтанно скорочуватись; на відміну від скелетних м’язів; простягатися, тягнутися; називатися у відповідності з; грудний м’яз; плечовий м'яз; глютеальний м’яз; дельтоподібний м’яз; біцепс; косий м’яз; поздовжня вісь; у відповідності з напрямком; лежати (знаходитися) під нахилом до; відвідний м’яз.
Ex. 13. Translate the text "Muscles" into Ukrainian.
Ex. 14. Answer the following questions:
1. What does a muscle consist of? 2. What major muscle groups do you know? 3. What are skeletal muscles responsible for? 4. Where are smooth muscles located? 5. What are the functions of smooth muscles? 6. Where is a cardiac muscle? 7. What is its function? 8. Where are long and short muscles? 9. Where are wide muscles located? 11. What muscles’ names do you know?
Ex. 15. Complete the following sentences:
|Muscles of the Upper Limb||1. The muscles of the human body are characterized by _. 2. The muscles consist of the muscular fibers and contain _. 3. Skeletal muscles with their associated connective tissue are responsible for _. 4. Smooth muscles are located in the walls of blood vessels and hollow organs, _ and other body regions. 5. Smooth muscles propel urine through the urinary tract, mix food in the intestine and stomach, _ and perform many other functions. 6. The contractions of cardiac muscles provide the major force for _. 7. Some facial muscles are not attached to bone _. 8. The most muscles are named according to their _. 9. The largest muscle of the buttock is _. 10. The|
deltoid muscle has _ shape. 11. An oblique muscle lie oblique to the _. 12. The long muscles compose _. 13. The short muscles form the _ part. 14. Muscles are attached to bones, _, and blood vessels.
Ex. 16. Compose the sentences using the following words and word-combinations:
1. divided / are / smooth / into / and / cardiac / the muscles / skeletal / muscles. 2. of / the skeletal / muscles / functions / are / by / controlled / the nervous system. 3. is / cardiac muscle / in / the heart. 4. contract / and / cardiac / smooth / muscles / spontaneously. 5. skeletal muscles / from / extend / bone / one / to another. 6. cause / muscle contractions / body movements / most. 7. of / some muscles / the face / are attached / to / the skin. 8. a pectoral muscle / located / is / the chest / in. 9. the arm / muscle / is / a brachial / found / in. 10. muscles / various / have / of / number / heads. 11. a biceps / muscle / two / has / heads. 12. skeletal / the trunk / move / the head / and / muscles / the limbs. 13. propel / through / the cardiac muscles / blood / vessels. 14. through / smooth / force / food / muscles / the digestive system.
Ex. 17. Speak on the muscles location, size, shape, orientation, and functions. The following expressions may be helpful:
Muscles consist of….
Muscles are divided into….
Their function is to ….
These muscles are/are found in ….
Some muscles are named/are called according to ….
Ex. 18. Insert the missing words given below:
1. Muscle is attached to bone by _ and other tissues. 2. Muscles are made up of millions of tiny protein filaments, which work together _ motion in the body. 3. Each of more than 600 muscles is served by nerves, which link the muscle to the brain and _. 4. We _ with three types of muscles. 5. Cardiac muscles, found only in the heart, power the action that pumps blood _ the body. 6. Smooth muscles surround or are part of the_. 7. Both cardiac and _ muscles are called involuntary muscles, because they cannot be consciously controlled. 8. The third type of muscles _ skeletal muscles. 9. The _ muscles carry out voluntary movements. 10. Skeletal muscles are the body's most abundant tissue, comprising about 23% of a woman's body _ and about 40% of a man's body _.
|to produce; are equipped; is called; spinal cord; tendons; internal organs; throughout; smooth; skeletal; weight.|
Ex. 19. Insert the missing prepositions (on, to, in, for, of, over):
1. The muscles form approximately 40% _ the body weight. 2. The long muscles compose the free limbs, and the wide ones lie _ the trunk and form the walls of the body cavities. 3. Muscles are attached _ the bones, internal organs, and blood vessels. 4. They allow us to make internal or external movements due _ their contraction and relaxation. 5. As _ the structure of the muscles there are three types of them: striated (skeletal) muscles, smooth (visceral) muscles, and a cardiac muscle. 6. The striated muscles move all the bones, face, and eyes _ the human body. 7. The smooth muscles move the internal organs such as the organs _ the digestive tract, blood vessels, and secretory ducts. 8. We have no control _ visceral muscles and a cardiac muscle. 9. There are many nerves and blood vessels _ the muscles.
Ex. 20. Read the following abstract and translate it:
The muscles of the thorax are involved almost entirely in the process of breathing. Four major groups of muscles are associated with the rib cage. The scalene muscles elevate the first two ribs during inspiration. The external intercostals also elevate the ribs during inspiration. The internal intercostals and transverse thoracic muscles contract during forced expiration. The major movement produced during quiet breathing, however, is accomplished by the diaphragm. It is dome shaped when relaxed; when it contracts, the dome is flattened, causing the volume of the thoracic cavity to increase and resulting in inspiration. If this wall of skeletal muscle or the phrenic nerve supplying it is severely damaged, the amount of air exchanged in the lungs may be so small that the individual is likely to die unless connected to an artificial respirator.
Ex. 21. Compose the text from the following sentences:
1. This key characteristic allows the muscles to shorten and lengthen and thus produce movements at the joints. 2. The muscles are fibers with elasticity that sets them apart from other body parts.
3. In the arm, for example, the contraction of biceps muscle will cause the arm to flex, whereas a contraction of the opposing triceps muscle causes the arm to extend. 4. Virtually all muscles are paired. 5. Tendons connect muscles to the bones.
6. Physicians call them involuntary muscles, because they are not under conscious control. 7. Not all muscles produce movement of the skeleton. 8. You can find these muscles in such internal organs as the stomach, uterus, and bladder and in the walls of blood vessels. 9. They usually are arranged in sheets. 10. In addition to the skeletal muscles, there are smooth muscles.
11. Heart muscle is another type of muscle. 12. Smooth muscles and heart muscles are not considered part of the musculoskeletal system. 13. This is also beyond the mechanism of voluntary control.
Ex. 22. Translate the following sentences into English:
1. У тілі людини знаходиться близько 650 м’язів. 2. М’яз складається з м’язових клітин. 3. Кожен м’яз містить кров’яні судини та нерви. 4. М’язи поділяються на три групи: скелетні, гладкі та серцеві м’язи. 5. Скелетні м’язи призводять до руху тулуб, голову та кінцівки. 6. Серцевий м’яз сприяє руху крові по судинам. 7. Гладкі м’язи просувають їжу по травній системі. 8. Серцеві та гладкі мязи скорочуються спонтанно. 9. Мязи прикріплюються до кісток за допомогою сухожилків. 10. Більшість скелетних м’язів простягаються від однієї кістки до іншої. 11. Деякі м’язи обличчя прикріплюються до шкіри, яка приходить у рух тоді, коли скорочуються м’язи. 12. Довгі м’язи знаходяться у кінцівках, короткі м’язи утворюють лицьову частину, а широкі м’язи формують стінки порожнин тіла.
Ex. 23. Make up a detailed plan of the text "Muscles".
Ex. 24. Speak on the structure, functions, and names of muscles.
Ex. 25. Make up a dialogue on muscles.
Ex. 26. Read the following text and answer the question: Is the body-building useful for modern people?
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