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Anomalies of shape

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Anomalies of shape include germination, fusion, concrescence, dilacerations, enamel pearl, talon cusp, taurodontism, supernumerary roots.

Tooth gemination is a dental phenomenon when two teeth develop from one tooth bud and, as a result, the patient has an extra tooth, in contrast to fusion. Fusion is a rare dental case characterized by the complete bonding of two adjacent teeth due to irregular growth. Concrescence is a condition of teeth where the cementum overlying the roots of at least two teeth join together. The cause can sometimes be attributed to trauma or crowding of teeth. An enamel pearl is a condition of teeth where enamel is found on locations where enamel is not supposed to be, such as on a root surface. They are found usually in the area between roots of molars. Enamel pearls are not common in teeth with a single root. A talon cusp, also known as an "eagle's talon", is an extra cusp on an anterior tooth. Taurodontism can be defined as a change in tooth shape characterized by an enlarged pulp chamber, apical displacement of the pulpal floor, and no constriction at the level of the cemento-enamel junction. A supernumerary root is a condition found in teeth there may be a larger number of roots than expected. The most common teeth affected are mandibular canines, premolars, and molars, especially third molars. Dilaceration is the anomaly in the tooth shape and its structure and it refers to a sharp bend in the tooth which can be in the crown portion or in the root, making sharp angles at the junction of the crown and root.

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