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Exercise 1. Read the article by Peter Timman. Tell your partner what you remember about the basic outline format for essays.

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An essay can have many purposes, but the basic structure is the same no matter what. These simple steps will guide you through the essay writing process:

1. Decide on your topic.

2. Prepare an outline of your ideas:

a) write your thesis statement,

b) write the body,

c) write the main points,

d) write the subpoints,

e) elaborate on the subpoints,

f) write the introduction,

g) write the conclusion.

3. Add the finishing touches.

Think about the type of paper you are expected to produce. Should it be a general overview, or a specific analysis of the topic? If it should be an overview, then you are probably ready to move to the next step. If it should be a specific analysis, make sure your topic is fairly specific. If it is too general, you must choose a narrower subtopic to discuss.

The purpose of an outline is to put your ideas about the topic on paper, in a moderately organized format. Begin your outline by writing your topic at the top of the page.Then say what you want to do … do it … say what you have done.

Following this Basic Outline:

A. Introduction and thesis statement (Say what you want to do)

1) Before writing you must have a thesis statement. This is one sentence announcing the central idea of the paper. It must be specific. This statement should sum up the basic meaning of the paper and signal to the reader what to expect.

2) The first sentence is the most important one because it gets the reader’s attention.

3) The first paragraph is very important. It should make the reader want to continue reading.

B. The body of the paper (Do it)

1) Each paragraph should deal with one central idea. This idea is introduced early in a topic sentence, telling the reader what to expect in the paragraph.

2) It is not enough to simply state ideas, you must support them. By giving evidence, you convince readers of the truth and accuracy of your ideas. If you successfully prove your statements, the reader should agree with your conclusion.

3) As a writer, you must structure the sequence of ideas carefully and logically. Transitions between paragraphs link them together logically.

C. Conclusion (Say what you have done)

1) Restates the thesis and main points supporting it. In the conclusion, the writer should give some new ideas or information to challenge the reader to think further.

Nothing can substitute for revision of your work. By reviewing what you have done, you can improve weak points that otherwise would be missed. Read and reread your paper. These questions could help:

Does it make logical sense?

Do the sentences flow smoothly from one another?

Have you run a spell checker or a grammar checker?

Timmann P. Writing Papers // The Advisings Quarterly, Winter 2009.


Exercise 2. Choose one of the following topics. Write your own essay (200-250 words).

1) Transport and Environmental Policy in global scale.

2) Environmentally Sustainable Transport.

3)Taking Climate Change into Account. Transportation projects of future.


The sulphur content in rail diesel fuels is currently being reduced towards the level of road vehicles as railways continuously seek to improve their performance technical, operational, commercial and procurement measures. Work in groups. Research this topic and report your findings to the rest of the class.

The following sites may help:

Green Project http://green.uic.asso.fr

Rail Diesel Study www.uic.asso.fr/environment

Railways and biofuel www.uic.asso.fr/environment


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Читайте в этой же книге: Exercise 1. Some words are often used together. Fill the gaps in sentences 1-8 with a word from the list that goes with the word in bold. | The Environmental Impacts of Transportation | Exercise 8. Read the Russian text, title and render it in English. |
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Exercise 6. Listen to the interview with Larry West. Find typical phrases to describe visuals. Reproduce the dialogue with a partner.| Global warming

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