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Public limited companies.

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HOMEWORK FROM RESHETNYAK

Warm Up

1. What forms of doing business do you know? Which one appeals to you most and why?

2. What are most people’s main personal assets?

3. What are the ways of getting the capital to set up a business?

4. What are the advantages and disadvantages of being a sleeping partner?

Intensive Reading

PRIVATE OWNERSHIP

Sole traders.

These are businesses which are owned by a private person who uses his own money to run the business. Consequently the sole trader is entitled to all the profits, but he must also bear any losses which are incurred. A sole trader has no legal obligation to make his accounts publicly available; and he is responsible for the day-to-day management of the business. Examples of sole traders are small shopkeepers, jobbing builders, plumbers and hairdressers.

Partnership.

These are unincorporated associations and the legal rules which govern them were established in the Partnership Act of 1890. The association or partnership does not have a separate existence from its members, the number of which ranges from two to 20. The partners provide the finance for the organisation, and the profits and losses will normally be shared in an agreed proportion depending on the individual's contribution to the partnership. The partners agree on the day-to-day running of the business: some members can be “sleeping” partners, in that they do not take part in the daily operations. Partners have unlimited liability: each partner is jointly liable with the other partners for any debts. Like sole traders, there is no legal obligation for the partners to publish their accounts.

Well-known examples of partnership occur in the professions, such as solicitors, accountants and estate agents. But partnerships can be formed by any group of people carrying on business with a view of making a profit; consequently partnerships are found in all types of trade and business activity.

Private limited companies.

This type of organisation is a corporation incorporated by the Companies Act 1948-85. The number of members can range from two to 50 and they provide the financial resources for the undertaking. Membership of the company is restricted to private individuals: members of the general public cannot buy shares in a private limited company. The profits are distributed to the members as dividends on their shareholding. Losses are borne by the company. The day-to-day management of the company is carried out by a board of directors. Private limited companies are often local family businesses and are common in the building, retailing and clothing industries.

Public limited companies.

Public limited liability companies, despite their name, are the best known form of private company. They are corporations and obtain their share capital from members of the public. They are simi|ar to private limited companies in that profits are distributed as dividends to shareholders and the liability of members is restricted to their shareholdings. Any losses are borne by the company. Management of the company is conducted by a board of directors who are responsible to the shareholders.

Most industries include public limited companies and many of them, by developing a corporate image, have become household names: Barclays, Rowntree-Mackintosh, Tate & Lyle, EMI, Beecham, Ford and Courtaulds are public limited companies. Some public limited companies have developed into massive organisations such that a few private corporations are as large as some sovereign states.


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