Activity I: Mastering Vocabulary
1. Explain the meaning of the following words from the text:
the straight year, bullying, child abuse and neglect, alcohol abuse, illicit drug use, the national recession, clinicians,an incidence of a disease (e.g. gallstones)
2. Paraphrase the following expressions:
to level off obesity, obesity-related chronic diseases, to rate health concerns, to become prevalent, to develop a disease (e.g. diabetes), risk factors, to strain the heart
3. Use the words (sometimes parts of the phrases) from the previous exercises to complete the following sentences:
1. The story used to be told of a prominent ... that he always examined his patients physically only through the clothes.
2.According to the Daily Mail (2011), the most common ... sold at school was marijuana (91 percent), prescription drugs (9 percent), and ecstasy (7 percent).
3. Health and wellbeing are affected by many components, and those that are associated with ill health, disability, disease or death are known as ....
4. Supporting and promoting the rights of the patient in the health care arena ...are more focused on communities, policies or the system as a whole.
5. This includes ..., particularly emotional ... such as ridicule.
6. It's possible …the cardiac muscle despite the fact it is very different than normal muscle.
7. About 3 in 10 American adults report having been diagnosed with high blood pressure or high cholesterol in their lifetimes, making these two illnesses the most ... diseases measured.
8. It's important to keep track of your family medical history because if you know whether you are likely ... , you can learn how to protect yourself.
4.Fill in the gaps with correct prepositions if necessary.
|1. to reflect ...the long-term public health efforts 2. to battle ... illicit drug use 3. to increase a risk ... a number of diseases (conditions)||4. to be related ... high blood cholesterol 5. to be ... risk ...a disease (e.g. sleep apnea) 6. to lead ... heart failure|
Activity II: Summarizing
Summarize the text.
Activity III: Analyzing the data
1. Study the charts in which the data related to childhood obesity problem are presented, summarize the trends. Can you explain them?
Does obesity prevalence depend on a race or ethnic group? Why?
2. Read the opinion of Dr David Ansell and answer the questions given below.
Poor health was not just the result of random acts, bad luck, bad behavior or unfortunate genetics. Deliberate public policy decision about housing, education, parks and streets were the key drivers of racial differences in mortality. Crime kept people off the streets and limited their ability to exercise. The lack of grocery stores limited dietary choices. The lack of primary care doctors and specialists in these communities made chronic disease care more difficult. The degradation and loss of hospital services in these communities affected hospital-based outcomes. …
― David A. Ansell, COUNTY: Life, Death and Politics at Chicago's Public Hospital
What causes health problems in Dr David Ansell opinion? Do you agree that poor health depends on a social status of a person?
Getting an Insight into American Culture
Most associate the term "Freshman 15" with the phenomenon of how college students gain weight their first semester attending a college or university. College freshmen seem to be the most susceptible to gaining weight their first semester (or year) at college, mostly attributed to a severe lifestyle change.
Typically the first semester at a college or university is a transitional period for a college freshman, where they break apart from the rules and regulations of their parents to become self ruling young adults. This change of lifestyle removes the parental guidance teens have lived with their entire life. In this new environment, a college freshman is able to go as they please, do what they please, drink and eat what they want, when they want.
In most family environments parents determine the time of dinner and what is served. At most colleges and universities, students are presented with various food choices for each meal. The problem is there is no one there to tell students what is healthy and what is not. The student tends to eat what taste's good rather then getting the nutrition they need. In the household they may be forced to eat vegetables, but in the cafeteria, they are allowed to eat whatever they want (pizza, ice cream etc.).
The causes of the freshman 15 may seem to be common sense for many people, but others struggle to understand why they gain so much weight during the first year at a college or university. Here is a list of a few of the causes of the freshman fifteen that should be avoided as much as possible:
· Lack of exercise
· Eating late at night
· Keeping unhealthy snacks on hand (in the dorm room)
· Eating unhealthy cafeteria food
· Drinking excessive amounts of alcohol
Contrary to common belief, most freshman college students do not gain 15 pounds. Recent studies show that on average, most freshmen gain 5 pounds. But this is just an average, indicating there are students who gain much more weight than that, and some students loose weight.
(adapted from http://www.freshman15.com/)
1. Read the personal stories given below and think about the ways how the problem of “Freshman 15” might have been avoided in each case.
"Before college, I was never the thinnest person on the planet. I was in shape, but I was curvy. I had boobs, and a butt, and I worked it. I didn't care that I wasn't a waif. Then, I graduated and went to school at SUNY Purchase, a small liberal arts school a little north of New York City.
I really didn't make any friends, and basically became a recluse. I was always social but just didn't fit in at Purchase. A formerly light eater, I developed a crazy appetite and ate constantly. I had a big meal plan and plenty of free time, so I ate my way through my days.
I was depressed because I wasn't making friends, so M&Ms made me feel better. I put on about ten pounds that year, which didn’t bother me that much at all, but I knew I had to transfer schools…
I finished the fall semester and transferred to NYU for the spring. NYU is the right fit for me, but living in New York City isn’t great for my waistline… (AS, New York University)(http://www.freshman15.com/weight-gain-stories/my-only-friend-was-food.php)
"When I started Uni, I had lost about 10lbs during the summer, had a gorgeous tan and had quite a few male admirers. I would exercise almost regularly. Then exams rolled around and my god, that screwed me up. I didn't study, I had pizza at 4am, I would get a starbucks almost every 4 hours. I had to have candy, something sugary to keep me awake. I had gained 10 lbs within the end of feburary.
The worst part my parents began to mock me saying how ugly I looked and how frumpy I had became. Not only that my gorgeous legs I once had were now cellulite garabage bags. But with the cafeteria food every where I went and all the meal plan money on my student card. What was I supposed to do, let all the money go to waste...no, to my hips…” (RD, Iowa State University) (http://www.freshman15.com/weight-gain-stories/fresh-more-like-yucky-cellulite.php)
“So, I entered college as a thin girl being 5'7" and 131 pounds. The freshman 15 hadn't really crossed my mind. I had always exercised regularly and ate fairly healthy. As I studied, i didn't do much exercise and as time went on, I didn't exercise at all. I started to eat more junk food and partied.
I didn't really notice until my pants started getting tight and when I looked in the mirror right before spring break. At this time, none of my pants fit and even my brand new ones got tight. I looked in the mirror one day only in my new D cup bra and my underwear to see my butt had gotten huge, my thighs were much larger, a double chin, and most of all new rolls of fat were all around my huge belly that hung over my panties…
I am now in my junior year and weigh 285 pounds. I have tried everything but can't lose the weight. Don't end up like me. Obese at age 20" (Jenna,
"I only lived in the dorms one semester my freshman year and I gave myself a total free pass. I ate two or three plates at a time, kept all kinds of snacks in my room, and often ordered a second dinner of pizza late at night because the cafeteria closed rather early. I actually had a lot of fun eating whatever I wanted, but it definitely packed a gut on me…” (Matthew, University of Wisconsin-Whitewater) (http://www.freshman15.com/weight-gain-stories/freshman-15-suprised.php)
2. Do Russian students have the similar problems? Why?
Writing an Opinion Essay
The opinion essay defines and develops your beliefs and positions on just about any subject or issue.
Your opinion is very personal, but being personal does not exclude credibility, substance, and supporting evidence. An opinion essay helps organize the substance and reasons behind your thoughts and ideas.
1. Read the following plan on writing an opinion essay «What do you think plays the basic role in a teenager healthy living: the family or the society (the community, the ethnic group, government)? »
1. The introduction of the essay: state your position in the topic sentence.
2. The body of the essay: express your own opinion on the topic and support it with reliable sources and valuable information (may be presented by others (scientists, researchers, professors)).
3. The final part of the essay: the conclusion where you restate your point of view.
2. Write a one-paragraph essay keeping to the plan given above.
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