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Articles of the Constitution

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  4. Lesson 25 Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk
  5. Study the following extracts. Analyze the types, structure and syntax of these articles. Determine the purpose of each piece.

The document is made up of a preamble and 16 articles.


The preamble briefly discusses Cossack history, their Khazar origin, the rise and fall of the Zaporizhian Sich after under Bohdan Khmelnytsky it rebelled against the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth to serve the Imperial Russia. Using all available means, Moscow limited and nullified rights and freedoms of the Zaporizhian Host going as far as subjugating the free cossack nation, states the introduction. Ivan Mazepa's politics and alliance with Charles XII of Sweden are explained as logical and inevitable, mandated by the need to free the homeland. The independence of the new state from Russia was the primary goal of the Bendery Constitution.

Articles 1 - 5

Articles 1-3 dealt with general Ukrainian affairs. They proclaimed the Orthodox faith to be the faith of Ukraine, and independent of the patriarch of Moscow. The Sluch River was designated as the boundary between Ukraine and Poland. The articles also recognized the need for an anti-Russian alliance between Ukraine and the Crimean Khanate.

Articles 4-5 reflected the interests of the Zaporozhian Cossacks, who constituted the overwhelming majority of the Bendery emigration. The Hetman was obligated:

to expel, with the help of Charles XII, the Russians from Zaporozhian territories

to grant the town of Trakhtymyriv to the Zaporozhians to serve as a hospital, and

to keep non-Zaporozhians away from Zaporozhian territories

Articles 6 - 16

Articles 6-10 limited the powers of the hetman and established a Cossack parliament, similar to an extended council of officers, which was to meet three times a year. The General Council was to consist not only of the general staff and the regimental colonels, but also of "an outstanding and worthy individual from each regiment."

Articles 11-16 protected the rights of towns, limited the taxation of peasants and poor Cossacks, and restricted the innkeepers. Charles XII, king of Sweden and "the protector of Ukraine," happened to be in Bendery at the time, and confirmed these articles.

Lesson 26 “I wish….”, “If I were you…”

Grammar Exercises

Упр. 1. Раскройте скобки, употребляя требу­ющуюся форму сослагательного наклонения пос­ле "/ wish".

1. I wish I (to know) Spanish. 2. I wish I (not to drink) so much coffee in the evening: I could not Bleep half the night. 3. I wish you (to read) more in future. 4. I wish I never (to suggest) this idea. 5. I wish I (to be) at yesterday's party: it must have been very merry. 6. I wish we (to meet) again next summer. 7. Don't you wish you (to see) that per­formance before? 8. They wished they (not to see) this horrible scene again. 9. The unfortunate pupil wished he (not to forget) to learn the rule. 10. I wish I (to have) a season ticket to the Philharmonic next winter.

Упр. 2. Перефразируйте следующие предложения, употребляя "/ wish".

E.g. It's a pity you are ill. I wish you were not ill.

1. It's a pity you are not with us these days. 2. My friend regrets not having entered the uni­versity. 3. He was sorry not to have had enough time to finish his test-paper. 4. It's a pity we shan't be able to reach home before tea-time. 5. I am sor­ry I made you upset by telling you this news. 6. What a pity you don't know enough physics. 7. Unfortunately they won't return before Christ­mas. 8. The student was sorry he had not studied the material better and had shown such poor knowl­edge at the examination. 9. It's a pity that you did not send for us last night.

Упр. 3. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя "/ wish''.

1. а) Жаль, что вы пришли так поздно. 6) Жаль, что вы не пришли пораньше.

2. а) Обидно, что мы ушли до его прихода, б) Обидно, что мы не дождались его приходa

3. а) К сожалению, они еще ничего не знают, б) К сожалению, они уже знают об этом.

а) Жаль, что он такой легкомысленный.

б) Жаль, что он не достаточно серьезен.

а) Я теперь жалею, что не послушал его совета.

б) Я теперь жалею, что последовал его совету.

Упр. 4. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя "/ wish".

1. Если бы я был свободен сейчас! 2. Жаль, что и вчера у меня было мало времени. 3. Хоро­шо бы вы написали ей об этом сами. 4. Жаль, что вы не обратили внимания на его предуп­реждение. 5. Он пожалел, что бросил институт. 6. Жаль, что уже поздно идти туда. 7. Ах, если бы я пришел на вокзал вовремя! 8. Жаль, что вы не читали такую прекрасную книгу. 9. Жаль, что она делает так много ошибок в речи. 10. Ах, если бы вы сказали ей об этом в про­шлое воскресенье!



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