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Культура делового общения

Культура делового общения

Пупина Юлия Германовна (АЗ)

Communication are Latin and means to share. Communication is activity inconvenience information massages, informations by speech, signals. It is the mining ful exchange of information between two or more living reaches. Communication requests a massage, a sender and receipient. Although the receive doesn't practory present or their of the sentence... Intent to communicate... Of the communication. Does communication can a cross vast distanceis in time or spice. The communication process is complete once the receiver understand the receiver massage.

Communication is the activity of conveying information. Communication has been derived from the Latin word "communis", meaning to share. Communication requires a sender, a message, and an intended recipient, although the receiver need not be present or aware of the sender's intent to communicate at the time of communication; thus communication can occur across vast distances in time and space. Communication requires that the communicating parties share an area of communicative commonality. The communication process is complete once the receiver has understood the message of the sender. Feedback is critical to effective communication between parties.

A basic communication modal

The sender and receiver, the medium that c.... conte tigon, the massage itself and feedback. To target your massages effectively you need to consider... that to affect each of the components of the modal

Senter and receive

There are some factories The sender persieve information. Both sentence to the save information.

1. Different believes values and personalities, enfluence the way

2. Verios to communication privet a senders massage from understood on invented

Examples incloods or bad grammar, natural relation sheep between the sender of receiver.

The second component of the communication is

The communication from speech to communication e mails Sales information.

We need to consider some factories

1. Importance of the massage

Janurally is massage Face to face

And the receiver response immediately

E mails messengers Need to get

Practice galerty

One senders and receiver of geographical response using communications.... in more practical. Other practical considerations are the costa, physical sparse requirements ant attention bialys associate a different communication union

Another factor your receiver

To communicate factory you should not medlaight the other practice...

Receivers communications style - some people respond best the information presented visually, others more they here or information...

Need or feedback - if you need from the receiver you should choose the medium...

Convection factories

There are various connection various

1. Bodies language

2. Timing very important

3. Окружающая среда

The tape of language... massage

The the formulated the massage

The willingness of the receiver... and the ray each to speak

Massage is defined es the object of the communication or the thing is be communicated. Written, spoke, physical signals and visuals.

Each massage has a possific office

To perceived or receiver Conditions reactions.

To motivate the receiver wate, discussion and stimulated particular and... to receiver.example requesting information

Feedback Обратная связь it is many response a communicated massage. It takes to before of the massage itself and maybe.... visual

+ and -

Feedback is communication and helps the sender it to helps in to the sender... so that the massage correct to receive. deliver a massage it half ours for discussion.

Types of communication

1. Internal communication takes place...the organization or group, a one people, in Group and employees. To inform, develop, instruct, educate and motivate, to saved, intent ament and direct, control and potion people in the organization.

2. External communication floors imploded it is dresses some organization... prospect and costumes, public, press, media.

Demonstrations and controls, business, press relishes and presentation, advertisement. It is important Targeted such communication

Often forms and or impassion based image on the such of communication. The form its very neccicary... here it's taken retina...

Accorded up word communication a large communication have difficult археологические levels or

Insure business banks, finance company insures business and other people orient organizations have typically... Organization

The proses of communication to be complete and practice should involved others in types. So Communication. each one the...

Implodes surgetns market reports and performance reports, and request for facilities of instructions, examples...


Down communication upper word communication

So typical example performance body...

Formal communication all organizations the majority formal of communication(stuff midiance and reports, governments)

Formal communications as they occur in traditional organizations have a "one-way" directional characteristic; the formal communication proceeds from superior to subordinate, and its content is presumably clear because it originates at a higher level of expertise and experience. Military communications also carry the additional assumption that the superior is responsible for making the communication clear and understandable to his or her subordinates. This type of organization assumes that there is little need for two-way exchanges between organizational levels, except when initiated by people at a higher level. Because messages from superiors are considered to be more important than those from subordinates, the implicit rule is that communication channels (except for prescribed information flows) should not be cluttered by messages from subordinates, but should remain open and free for messages moving down the chain of command. "Juniors should be seen and not heard" is still an unwritten, if not explicit, law of military protocol.


Informal communication - works well in smaller lousy organizations its used more often in situations where are not regret arrivical types. Takes play chats...

Informal Communication

In the past, informal communication (generally associated with interpersonal, horizontal communication) was primarily seen as a potential hindrance to effective organizational performance. This is no longer the case. Informal communication has become more important to ensuring the effective conduct of work in modern organizations.


Letter communication - generically it takes placed... It persives Horizontal manner and takes place a one people's and at peer levels. Sometimes

Corrected and recover

Interected (ive) communication - it is two wake process. It's a place through conferences, presentations, group discussions and other to wake exchange to information. It's most prepared When the massage or subject is to be presented at lans(case study discations).


Mass communication - information is a large acordience(newspapers, magazine and journals, tv and radio)

Mass communication is the study of how individuals and entities relay information through mass media to large segments of the population at the same time. It is usually understood to relate to newspaper, magazine, and book publishing, as well as radio, television and film, as these mediums are used for disseminating information, news and advertising. Mass communication differs from the studies of other forms of communication, such as interpersonal communication or organizational communication, in that it focuses on a single source transmitting information to a large group of receivers. The study of mass communication is chiefly concerned with how the content of mass communication persuades or otherwise affects the behavior, attitude, opinion, or emotion of the person or people receiving the information.


Grapevine communication that prevails organizations and business. The sals of such communication may be not...


The reason Grapevine communication is called ‘grapevine’ is because of its similarity to a grape vine. If you know grape vines then you’d know one interesting thing about them, which is the fact that it is extremely difficult to find its origin. Same can be said about grapevine communication because it is all based on rumors. The origin of the information might never be known.


A typical example of grapevine communication in an organization or establishment is conversations that go on between co-workers during lunch breaks, on their way home from work or even in company parking lots.


In this brief article on grapevine communication, we are going to take a look at some of the advantages and disadvantages of grapevine communication.


Advantages of grapevine communication

The first advantage of a grapevine communication is the fact that information through this channel is extremely fast. Many have said of grapevine communication to be one of the fastest forms of communication. It spreads faster than wild fire.

Another advantage of grapevine communication is that it tends to bring a sense of unity among employees of an organization when they meet to share and discuss certain issues. Experts say that because of the nature of grapevine communication, it enhances group cohesiveness in many organizations all over the world.

Grapevine communication is an informal mode of communication but it plays an instrumental role in aiding the formal methods of communication in every organization.

In organizations or establishments where formal communications do not function properly, grapevine communication comes to the rescue. Information through grapevine ends up being the only way employees can get any information about things going on around them.


Disadvantages of Grapevine communication

Grapevine information since it is largely based on rumors tends to carry along with it partial information which ends up not giving the real state of affairs in an organization.

Information received through grapevine might not be true.

Another great disadvantage of grapevine communication is the fact that it can damage an organization’s goodwill. For instance imagine a situation where lower ranking employees of an organization begin peddling false information about people at the top. This action can gradually destroy the goodwill of the organization.

The fourth disadvantage with grapevine communication is one that is common in many organizations all over the world. This is when employees become unproductive thanks to grapevine. Grapevine communication can make organizations lose a lot of money because thanks to grapevine employees spend work hours talking about the latest rumor circulating around them. The organization pays dearly for this.

Grapevine communication cannot be relied on because it is not trustworthy. If not managed properly, it can have serious implications.



Communication channels

Are the means through which people in an organization communicate. Thought must beginning to what channels are used to complete various tasks, because using an in appropriate Chanel in task or interaction can lived to read negative consedence(последствия). Complex massagers require recherché channels of communications that help interaction to insure claverty. The first Chanel face to face or personal communication is one of the reachest channels of communications. Physical presents retown the told speakers boys and fashional refreshes help resipience of a massage intopreated that massage as the speaker against. This is the best Chanel to use for complex or emotionally charged massngers, because eat alouds for interection between swipes and spines to clarify and ambiguity. A speaker can avalluate. If arronience... And ask for answer for are questions.


Roadcust medium Chanel - tv radio and loud speakers all fall within broadcast madia communication Chanel. Those types of media should used when aggressive and mess audience. Example business is seeking to not... may advertise allow promotions using a broadcast chanel. When a massage intended for a mass ordinance can be inhanced to be improved... A broadcast the chanel should be used.


Mobile Chanel communication should be used when a private or more complex massage needs to be relate скорость to individual or small group.


Electronic communication Chanel's incomes to include emails, intranet внутри компанииand social media platforms. This Chanel can be cued for one and one group or mass communication. It's less persona but more efficient.


Writtenn Chanel of communication with cued when a massage does not require interaction but needs to be communicated. To someone. Polices, letters,maniulsруководство, noteses.


Role of feedback in communication

Feedback is essential in communication so as to know whether the recipient has understood the message in the same terms as intended by the sender and whether he agrees to that message or not. Receivers are not just passive absorbers of messages. They receive the message and respond to about the subject matter about what they have understood. This response of a receiver to sender’s message is called Feedback. Sometimes a feedback could be a non-verbal, smiles, sighs and other times, it is oral. It can also be written like replying to an e-mail, etc.

Feedback giver should asks themselves three questions

1. If my feedback true sincere in fare

2. Is it helpful

3. Is it nessusary

So effective observes understand objective and try again.

The listen first and then to performance and not the personal. Do-s

1. Start by ask you the resipient to the variet their own performance.

2. Be specific clear and accurate точный

3. Be balanced take in consideration only observably behavior in performance.

4. Consider the benefit of Imidet fitback, olthough the mady oceanically be reasons for waiting.

5. Be sincere mind the three bees: verbal, visual, warkal.

6. Allow enough time for a response to re feedback


You need avoid this words:

What if and how about, would you agree, don't you think and others,motivated


Don't give to much information which drowns to receiver and dimativates them.


Face-to-face communication can't be beat. According to an article in "Entrepreneur," 67 percent of senior executives and managers say their organizations would be more productive if their superiors communicated more often by personal discussion, based on the survey by NFI Research. But, while face-to-face communication is often preferred, it is not always realistic, particularly in companies that may be based in multiple locations--even around the world. Fortunately there are tools that make it possible to approximate face-to-face communication through videoconferencing, for instance, allowing even the largest companies to create personal connections between staff and management.



Email communication has become common in organizations and is an important tool for sharing information with one, or hundreds--even thousands--of employees, says Linda Pophal with Strategic Communications. Email is often an important part of any communication plan, and while it may not replace face-to-face or other forms of communication, it is an inexpensive and readily accessible option.


Social Media

Social media tools like Facebook can be used effectively within organizations to communicate between employees, departments, divisions and locations. Other tools like Yammer are designed specifically to create social media networks within the confines of a specific business domain.



Meetings remain common in most business settings, says Pophal, and can now be augmented through the use of technology tools that allow remote participants to take part in discussions, even if they are not physically on-site during the meeting. Effective meetings share key elements--an agenda, a facilitator and minutes that clearly outline follow-up activities and assign accountability for various tasks.


Various of communication (пояснить)

1. Physical barrios - are often due to the nature of the environment. An example of this is the natural barrier which exists if staff are located in different buildings or on different sites. Likewise, poor or outdated equipment, particularly the failure of management to introduce new technology, may also cause problems. Staff shortages are another factor which frequently causes communication difficulties for an organization. While distractions like background noise, poor lighting or an environment which is too hot or cold can all affect people's morale and concentration, which in turn interfere with effective communication.


2. Perceptions(восприятие) barrios -

3. Emotional barrios -

4. Cultural barrios -

5. Language barrios -

6. Genda barrios -

7. Interpersonal barrios -

The theory of communication is partly concerned with the measurement of information content of signals, as their essential property in the establishment of communication links. But the information content of signals is not to be regarded as a commodity; it is more a property or potential of the signals, and as a concept it is closely related to the idea of selection, or discrimination. This mathematical theory first arose in telegraphy and telephony, being developed for the purpose of measuring the information content of telecommunication signals. It concerned only the signals themselves as transmitted along wires, or broadcast through the aether, and is quite abstracted from all questions of "meaning." Nor does it concern the importance, the value, or truth to any particular person. As a theory, it lies at the syntactic level of sign theory and is abstracted from the semantic and pragmatic levels. We shall argue... that, though the theory does not directly involve biological elements, it is nevertheless quite basic to the study of human communication — basic but insufficient.



27.02.2014. Types of communication

There are 4 types of communication:agrassive, assertive, passive,passive-aggressive.

Passive Communication is a style in which individuals intentionally or unintentionally develop a pattern of switching themselves to indifference where by sitting on back burner avoid true feelings to be expressed, slip off their rights, lets others to identify their needs and drive their thoughts the way they want. They usually born with low self-esteem and believe: ‘I’m not worth taking care of.’

In account of their pessimistic approach to life, they do not respond appropriately to hurting or anger-inducing situations and allow grievances and annoyances to mount up within. With the passage of time, their tolerance level reaches beyond certain level of threshold and prone to explosive outbursts. Any evident can trigger fatal reactions, which in turn may make them, feel ashamed, guilty, confused and more passive.


Passive communicators often:

ü Fail to make other feel their importance in their lives.

ü Allow others to deliberately or inadvertently infringe on their rights.

ü Unable to express their inner feelings and needs or opinions.

ü Tend to be dominated by the views of others.

ü Exhibit confusion, poor eye contact and slumped body posture.

The impact of a pattern of passive communication is that these individuals: ü Are often pessimistic, as life seems of getting out of their control.

ü Are often depressed and hopeless, as they see no way out of their problems.

ü Are often seemed resentful for inability of being expressive to their feelings and needs.

ü Are often seemed to immature in addressing to their real issues of life.

Passive communication is based on compliance and hopes to avoid confrontation at all costs. In this mode we don't talk much, question even less, and actually do very little. We just don't want to rock the boat. Passives have learned that it is safer not to react and better to disappear than to stand up and be noticed.


Passivity stems with years of allowing others to dominate oneself and violating his/her basic rights. Such kind of behaviour proves to be fatal when one confronts with real life situations, where one has to be assertive, quick decision maker and responsive. The guilt of being unable to appropriately respond in certain situations dismantles the personality within so deeply that it leads sometimes to extreme behavioural patterns, either acute depressive or extreme assertive near to self-disruptive stubbornness.


Sometimes, certain situations demand passive communication:

ü When an issue is minor;

ü When the problems caused by the conflict are greater than the conflict itself;

ü When emotions are running high and it makes sense to take a break in order to calm down and regain perspective;

ü When your power is much lower than the other party's;

ü When the other's position is impossible to change for all practical purposes (i.e., government policies, etc.).

Passive communication It is a style in which individuals have developed ettended of developed at... Protective their... and identifiy

Passive communication as usually born of low self a steam (низкая самооценка). As a result passive individuals do not respond openly to herd ful or ender inducing situations. Instead they allow grievances and anoincesраздражение to mount usually unaware of deal up.but once they have reached the high tolerance fresh all for a exceptional behavior they are prawn to склонны explousing threshold. After the out gilt and confusion. So they return to be passive. Passive communicates will often:

1. Fail to assert for resells

2. Allow others to derivetly or indertevetly infringe on the rights.

3. Feel to express the fillings needs or opinions

4. Tend to speak softly apology ally and exhibit for air contact or slumpt body option. The empacst of passive communication is that this individuals: often fill-actions беспокойство because life since to be

Often feel depress because they fell depressions because they feel hopeless and stuck. They often feel resentful because the needs are not met. They often feel confused because their ignore their all feelings.

They are unable to mature because real issues are never adressed.

Phrases typical

I am noble to stand up of my rights отстоять свои права

I get stepped on

People never consider my opinions


Communicators aggressive individuals express their feelings and opinions and advocate for their needs in away violates the rights of others. Thus such communicators are verbally and or physically abusive.aggressive communication is born of low self-esteem. Often caused by fast physical or... Unhinged emotional And fillings of...

Aggressive communicators will often:

Try do dominate others

Use humiliation to control others

Criticize blame or attend other people

Be very impulsive

Speak in allowed Demondy voice act frequently and rudely

Not listen well,enterupt have perseve I context and a over berried posture.

People become aligned from others generated fear and... Others always blame other people.


I am superior and you are in fear are wrong

I am dominate and intimidate you запугать

I ' will get my way no matter what

It is all your fault you owe me

3. Assertive communication

It is a style individuals clearly state their opinions are feelings and formally advocate for their rights and needs. Born high self style this individuals this people then you themselves, emotional Physical needs.

Such communicate is will:

1. State needs and once clearly appropriately and respectfully. They express feelings clearly. They used i statements, listen well without interrupting, have good eye contact,have a relaxed body posture,feel compete dent and in control, no allow others to abuse or manipulate and stand up for their rights.

People feel connected to others, they feel on control of their lives,arable to mature and free... Such individuals

I am confident about who I am

We are equally in titled to express our self respectfully to half an other. I can't control others, but I can control myself


Passive aggressive communication

Passive-aggressive communication is the pattern of behaviour wherein an individual swings between two completely different kinds of moods. At the surface level, he/she appears quite passive and indifferent but in reality acts out anger in a subtle or indirect way. When the communicator finds no way out to deal with overwhelming state of powerlessness, he/she usually acts in passive-aggressive ways. Prisoners of War (POWs) often act in this way by trying to secretly sabotage the prison, making fun of the enemy or quietly disrupt the system while smiling, and appearing cooperative. They feel incapable of dealing directly with the object of their resentments so express their anger by subtly undermining it (real or imagine).


A combination of passive-aggressive communication characteristically stems with outward passiveness but inward aggression, which leads to manipulation of situations in unpredictable ways. It is probably associated with psychological maladjustment deeply rooted within from years of perceived under-appreciation, and bitterness or is a character flaw brought on by an individual’s inability to deal effectively with his/her inner bitterness, resentment, or inadequacy in an assertive way.


Passive-aggressive communicators often:

ü Mutter to them but avoid direct confrontation to the problem.

ü Have difficulty in predicting their behaviour.

ü Wear expressions opposite to what they actually feel (i.e., smile when feel angry).

ü Use sarcasm as defence mechanism.

ü Are in state of denial to their problems.

ü Manipulate the situation according to their interests.

ü Use subtle ways of creating sabotage to breathe out their suppress resentments.


The impact of a pattern of passive-aggressive communication is that these individuals:

ü Become distant from those around them.

ü Remain stuck in the state of powerlessness.

ü Display resentment through temper tantrums to avoid addressing real life issues.

ü Forfeit their own rights initially but later followed by vengeance and manipulation.

ü Avoid conflicts and later on let other people think to their way.

ü Avoid risk initially, risk relationships for their interests, then act surprised as if do not know what is happening around.

ü Behave passively to people’s face but cunningly when they are not around.


Examples of passive-aggressive communication:

ü “Sure doctor, I’d be happy to write that verbal order,” but back on the unit the order is “forgotten.”

ü “I love your hair. Most people probably can’t even tell it’s a wig.”

ü “I hear what you’re saying, and I wouldn’t want to make waves, so I’ll do what you say even though someone will probably get sued.”

ü “I’m weak and resentful, so I sabotage, frustrate and, disrupt.”

ü “I’m powerless to deal with you head on so I must use guerrilla warfare.”

ü “I will appear cooperative but I’m not.”


There are various ways of dealing effectively with passive-aggressive communication:

ü Open-mindedness and coolness are prerequisite for dealing with such kind of behaviour as the individuals pertaining withdrawal attitude at the time of conflict, leaving others in the state of sheer responsibility of solving the given problem.

ü Such individuals need assurance in account of their importance in any matter otherwise they withhold what they think others need badly.

ü Passive-aggressive communication evokes from the environment, where healthy expression of anger is discouraged but if an appropriate context get associated with it which let the suppressed feelings out, then it may bear healthy turn outs.

ü Passive-aggressive communicators have no insight of their behaviour so don’t make them offensive but deal with extensive care.

ü Passive-aggressive communication should be psychologically dealt.


Communication styles дз

It is the characteristic makes all behaviors that defines how people approach interpersonal communication.

It is linear, circular,indirect, formal and informal, low context, high context,attached and detached, idea-focused and person-focused, task- focused and relationship- focused.

Interpersonal skills

Interpersonal skills such as effective listening and communication are they skills we use to interact or deal with people in our working and social lives.

Подразумеваем под ним

Listening to others

Manage component it's awarding and delusive compleat

Behavior appropriately

Adapt ability the contact, the style and delivery presentation the ordinance.

Developing rapport establishing relations

Collaborating means working together in the group


6.03.2014. Preparing and presented public speeches

Public speaking and apprehension

It is the level of fear that your experience when anticipating or actually speaking to the audience.

Symptoms and causes


Physical - flushed sheen, sweating and also some verbal distances,stuttering or sometimes vocal raised...

emotional - excitedly, wary and even upset

and cognitive - negative thoughts get from our experience.

Negative self talk

The felling Describes the forts about feeler that get through our mined prier to...

Managing our apprehension

The person sexccessful but learned how to much... It's cold communication, orientation, motivation.

The idea is when public speaken communication,orientation, you your speech to e talk to a number opportunist of people about the interesting to you and them. Here you should focus on getting your massage across rather than impressive your audience.

Visualization when can help you to develop mantel picture itself given a must for speech.

Cognitive restructure technics

The Idea is to replace exciting a Rosing negative sell talk with an exciting reducing. Attention for steps here 4 steps

1. identify

2. You should consider if you fears are rational.

3. You should develop a positive statements...

4. Combine and corporate positive statements into your life.


Effective speeches

1. Ordinance sentent. Such speech

1. Keeps ordinance members listening furlough out in the speech

2. Resultant in them understanding and remembering meaning ideas

3. Motivates them to you use...


Planning and practicing process of effected speech

1. Selecting a speech go that is it propireted for the ordinance...,

There are two terns: subject and topic

A subject is abroad

A topic is narrowed down specific our subject...

2. Understanding your ordinance and adopting to them

Educational level

percentage the high school,college and... education

Agenda presentedges manor woman

Occupation single oplication or indestructible.... occupations

Social economic background - percentage medium, ova upper encom.

Es massages message - dominant culture and group...


Community single, state country,city

Language -

Knowledge of the subject -...

Attitude to what subject, toward subject

Gathering and everlasting information to develop on content of your speech

Es you select material you should consider branch,relivenc to the topic on the ordinance...

Form Cartier you can use to assert... Authority,objectivity, currency and relevance.


Organizing ideas and the well structure outline

The goal of this activity is to create the thesis statement of your speech by combining a specific go your main points.

1. We lost... to your speech


You can found out... Ideas...

Combining ideas in the group

3. From those ideas from remain for the choose...


Created and introduction

An effective introduction arouses an audience's interest and provides a sense of purpose. It is like a highway sign directing a traveler at the start of a journey. Although some literary texts delight their readers by misdirecting them, most audiences want to have a clear sense of a paper's purpose as soon as they start reading.


There are many different ways to introduce a paper; some of the most common ones are


anecdote: tell a story to demonstrate the importance of a topic

misunderstanding: present a subject which many people fail to understand then promise to clarify their perspective

startling fact: use a surprisingly fact or statistic to intrigue a reader

background: explain the context of an issue so it is understood better

problem: present a pressing issue that needs to be solved

disagreement: explain two or more views on a subject then argue for one position

concept: apply a concept to clarify a situation

familiar/unfamiliar: make the familiar seem uncommon or make the unfamiliar seem common

For some other ways to create an introduction, see Bruce Ballenger's good advice in chapter four of The Curious Researcher. Remember that almost every introduction should answer these three key questions:

What is this paper about?

Why should a reader care about this topic?

In what order will this subject be explained?

Although the final draft of a paper should begin with an effective introduction, some writers prefer to delay drafting their introductions until most of a paper has been drafted. They reason that they cannot write an introduction until they know to what conclusion they want to bring a reader. Others believe that they cannot start drafting until they have a strong introduction so they have a clear sense of direction for the rest of the draft. Skillful writers begin wherever they can, meaning they write an introduction first for one paper and save it until last for another.


Because writing is a recursive process when we write multiple drafts, we can go back and revise a rough introduction after a draft is completed or reorganize a draft after a strong introduction has been written.

1. Gaining attention startling statement grabs attention by shocking listeners in some ways.

2. Rhetorical question will be 6 amantial response from the ordinance


Direct question Demands and..., response from the ordinance...

Joke - definition annidought...

Personal reports account for sum thing that happened to you or... Situation... That listeners can amage...


Quentention comment may buy and atrevity other they speaker.

Substance (напряжение) general uncertainty and... the ordinance to find out... will happen.

avdeeva_y@mail.ru почта

2. Establishing listener relevants

3. Stating thesis

4. Develop and listen relevants link point out why the audience should care about the topic.

5. Develop a very short statement that would be establish your probability


Creating the conclusion

Any conclusion should achieve to major goals

... Your speech goal and... And provide a clinger

Essence closer... of your ordinance

Step 5 choosing presentational aids

In ordered presentites to design of presentational aids we should

1. Required ordinance

2. Customize presentational aids from other sources

3. Use a photo, font style and type size that can be seen and read easily in the back... room.

Capital letters

Use pictures, singles to ad

Use color strategical

Displaying presentational aids


Step 6. Practice, delivering your speech

Should be practiced

1. Straight to be understandable

Articulation and eccent

2. Be wor... expressive

By changing peech, volume and rate,... and using...

Effective use of body

The most important Eye contact and emotional expressions. 90% should be addressed.. your opponent. Жесты

Of course...



Criteria for evaluating speeches

1. The contact

Was the follow goal the speech clear?

2. Did the speaker established common round and adept the contact to the ordinance interests,knowledge and attitude

3. Did the speaker use everaity of kinds of developmental material.

4. Did the speaker use and verily sait Credible Informational

5. Where presentational ads appropriate and well-used?



Did the introduction gave attention and lead into the speech

We're the main points clear,..., meaningful complete sentences

Did section transitions lead smoothly from one point to another

Was the language clear inclusive and...

Did the conclusion type the speech together buy some rising the goal and main points and providing closher



Did the speaker appear and sound sportanience and conversational

Did the speaker... animated

Inteligeable,..... Locally expressive... Fluent, look at the ordience....., look posture осанка,..... Have fashion expressions?, What the speaker apprise nice apportion


13.03.2014. Job in Italy

1. Analyze in the job

We need to analyzed the job...

Skills,knowledge,professional and personal qualities that are necessary... critical for the job.

2. Make and image - you need to make list own assents and to Mach them to the job requirements.

10 asserts

Including skills experiences professional qualifications and abilities, computer skills and any other relevant knowledge.

3. Research the company

4. Practice interviewer

Most common question

1. Tell me about yourself

2. Why do want to work here. Why our company interested to you?

3. Why did you leave your lust job?

If you did have any problems simply give a reason suches relocated away from job.another reason company went out the business, another reason laid off,temporary job, no possibility of advanced...

4. What are your best skills?

5. What is your major wick ness?

6. Do you prefer to work by yourself or with others?

7. What are your career goals? What are your future...?

8. What are your hobbies?

9. What salary are you expected?


5. Get your interview close ready.

Blue: inconveints come trust and conference

Dark blue: confedence and outhority

Gray: sastikitation and neutrality,powerfull

Black: very comandy color conveying a lot of power outhority and even drawer.

Red: amagy and...

White: convenes...


6. What to bring to a job interview.

Directions e mail

Identification (passport)

Notpad and pen блокнот и ручка

Names of contacts

List of question to ask

Extra copies of your résumé

Referents list рекомендательные


What you shouldn't bring: no guns,you switch off your phone,colors tattoos

7. Practice interview etiquette.

Grit in interviewer

.... language to make contacts

Lid forward but not to much

Try your keep on the floor

8. Listen and ask question

Phone job interview

1. Preparation

You should listen any interaptions

2. Landline...basic

3. To put on your game place

Remember to Smiling

4. Take advantage on disability factor

5. Remember the three sees: coinciding, concentration and certacy

6. Follow up.. Sent e - mail Thanks for interview Subject line - name,...


Written communication in business

Written communication involves any type of interaction that makes use of the written word. Communication is a key to any endeavor involving more than one person. Communicating through writing is essential in the modern world and is becoming ever more so as we participate in what is now commonly called the information age. In fact, written communication is the most common form of business communication. It is essential for small business owners and managers to develop effective written communication skills and to encourage the same in all employees. The information age has altered the ways in which we communicate and placed an increasing emphasis on written versus oral communications.


The ever-increasing use of computers and computer networks to organize and transmit information means the need for competent writing skills is rising. Dr. Craig Hogan, a former university professor who now heads an online school for business writing, receives hundreds of inquiries each month from managers and executives requesting help with improving their own and their employees' writing skills. Dr. Hogan explains, in an article entitled "What Corporate America Can't Build: A Sentence," that millions of people previously not required to do a lot of writing on the job are now expected to write frequently and rapidly. According to Dr. Hogan, many of them are not up to the task. "E-mail is a party to which English teachers have not been invited. It has companies tearing their hair out." Survey results from The National Commission on Writing study back up this assessment. They found that a third of employees in the nation's "blue chip" companies write poorly and are in need of remedial writing instruction.


The need to develop good writing skills is only highlighted by the fact that in the information age, it is not uncommon to have business relationships with customers and suppliers that are established and maintained exclusively through the use of written communications. In this environment, "the words we write are very real representations of our companies and ourselves. We must be sure that our e-mail messages are sending the right messages about us," explained Janis Fisher Chan, author of E-Mail: A Write It Well Guide-How to Write and Manage E-Mail in the Workplace, in an article appearing in Broker Magazine. The key to communication, of course, is to convey meaning in as accurate and concise a manner as possible. People do not read business memoranda for the pleasure of reading. They do so in order to receive instructions or information upon which to base decisions or take action. Therefore, highly literary prose is not desirable in business writing. Overly formal prose may also be counterproductive by seeming stand-offish or simply wordy. A style of writing that is too informal can also convey an unintended message, namely that the subject matter is not serious or not taken seriously by the sender. A straightforward, courteous tone is usually the best choice but one that may not come naturally without practice.



The basic process of communication begins when a fact or idea is observed by one person. That person (the sender) may decide to translate the observation into a message, and then transmit the message through some communication medium to another person (the receiver). The receiver then must interpret the message and provide feedback to the sender indicating that the message has been understood and appropriate action taken.


As Herta A. Murphy and Herbert W. Hildebrandt observed in Effective Business Communications, good communication should be complete, concise, clear, concrete, correct, considerate, and courteous. More specifically, this means that communication should: answer basic questions like who, what, when, where; be relevant and not overly wordy; focus on the receiver and his or her interests; use specific facts and figures and active verbs; use a conversational tone for readability; include examples and visual aids when needed; be tactful and good-natured; and be accurate and nondiscriminatory. Unclear, inaccurate, or inconsiderate business communication can waste valuable time, alienate employees or customers, and destroy goodwill toward management or the overall business.



One advantage to using written forms of communication is that written messages do not have to be delivered on the spur of the moment; instead, they can be edited and revised several times before they are sent so that the content can be shaped to maximum effect. Another advantage is that written communication provides a permanent record of the messages and can be saved for later study. Since they are permanent, written forms of communication also enable recipients to take more time in reviewing the message and providing appropriate feedback. For these reasons, written forms of communication are often considered more appropriate for complex business messages that include important facts and figures. Other benefits commonly associated with good writing skills include increased customer/client satisfaction; improved inter-organizational efficiency; and enhanced image in the community and industry.


There are also several potential pitfalls associated with written communication, however. For instance, unlike oral communication, wherein impressions and reactions are exchanged instantaneously, the sender of written communication does not generally receive immediate feedback to his or her message. This can be a source of frustration and uncertainty in business situations in which a swift response is desired. In addition, written messages often take more time to compose, both because of their information-packed nature and the difficulty that many individuals have in composing such correspondence. Many companies, however, have taken a proactive stance in addressing the latter issue. Mindful of the large number of workers who struggle with their writing abilities, some firms have begun to offer on-site writing courses or enrolled employees in business writing workshops offered by professional training organizations, colleges, and community education programs.



Electronic mail has emerged as a highly popular business communication tool in recent years. Indeed, its capacity to convey important corporate communications swiftly and easily has transformed it into a communications workhorse for business enterprises of all sizes and orientations. But many users of e-mail technology pay little attention to basic rules of grammar and format when composing their letters, even when they are penning business correspondence addressed to clients, customers, vendors, business partners, or internal colleagues. This sloppy correspondence style reflects a lack of professionalism and may communicate to the recipient a view of the company behind the message as equally unprofessional. The ease and informality of the medium should not be confused with the writing necessary to use it properly.


Given this unfortunate trend, many business experts counsel companies to install firm guidelines on tone, content, and shape of e-mail correspondence. These guidelines should make it clear that all employees are expected to adhere to the same standards of professionalism that (presumably) remain in place for traditional postal correspondence. Proper spelling and grammar and the ability to frame correspondence in suitably diplomatic language should be hallmarks of electronic mail as well as regular mail, especially if the communication is directed at a person or persons outside the company.


Involves any types of massage

Types of written communication. Some of the various founds written communication that are used for business operations reports,memos,just descriptions,employee memos, email and massages.

Examples of written communications generally used with lines of other business include email.,Internet,website, letters,brochures news releases,postcards.

+ it saves money to send an email instead of call

+ Written proof

- letter secrecy

- it can be costly

Effective written communication skills


2. Clarified.: direct, straightforward

3. Correct - dates and names, grammar

4. You should be concise сжатый краткий - you should

5. Courteous respectful and color...


20.03.2014. Business communication

1. Ask the Right Questions

2. Communicate Professionally

3. Schedule and Prepare Thoroughly

4. Speak,Pause, Listen

5. Follow up in writing

6. Ask for feedback

7. Address problems

8. Try a new format

9. Communicate confidently

10. Prepare an elevator speech

11. Be responsive

12. Write well


An Negotiation is a social interaction between people were the parties

1. try to meet the negotiations goals

2. Want to meet their need

3. Engage in repeated exchange of information or try to take advantages to improve results.

The outcome of negotiations depended on number a factors.

Enteral factors

1. Trust

2. Self confidence

3. Skills includes ability to control and conduct negotiations, a appropriately used language, concentration, body language,escalations.

4. Belief

5. Commitment - it's a willingness to archive something in the negotiating process.

6. Fear -


External factors:

1. Pressure to achieve the set goals, time pressure, team or peer pressure.

2. Uncertainly - being certain that you can really achieve the goal.

3. Environment the place, people.


Successful negotiations the smart goals

S - specific

M- magoriable

A - achievable

R - realistic

T - time based

Negotiations styles:

1. Style is I win, you win

2. I win, you loose

3. I loose, you win

4. I loose/you loose

5. I win and loose in some bits/ win and lose on some bits.


The major characteristic is that each party knowledges from the staff that the other party has needs to be met as well. This style is often found in business to business situations where partners... on long-team relations.

2.style is like Competition

It's very aggressive negotiations ale and there for it requires a strong and experienced some what rood personality to be successful. Such style can remembers... With the risk that loosing party will quit. This style bares... a great risk of...

3. Accommodation

You own lost can be justify...used when relationship. The same time it's very important and understand what you want and when the bottom line can be draw.

Style was i loose accords avoidness(adoidness)

There is a risk of negotiations to end avoiden style when the other side missed to walk away earlier or both sides continue to shy... Away from a resolving. It can be the outcome... when the states are not very high and both sides are trading off a fast result to a better...

5. I win you loose - compromising

In such the style very typical to take advantages. Both parties can easily agree and creates...

Distance be come people conservative


Business organization

Business communication (or simply "communications", in a business context) encompasses such topics as marketing, brand management, customer relations, consumer behavior, advertising, public relations, corporate communication, community engagement, reputation management, interpersonal communication, employee engagement, and event management. It is closely related to the fields of professional communication and technical communication.

Media channels for business communication include the Internet, print media, radio, television, ambient media, and word of mouth.

Business communication can also refer to internal communication. A communications director will typically manage internal communication and craft messages sent to employees. It is vital that internal communications are managed properly because a poorly crafted or managed message could foster distrust or hostility from employees.

Business communication is a common topic included in the curricula of Masters of Business Administration (MBA) programs of many universities. AS well, many community colleges and universities offer degrees in Communications.

There are several methods of business communication, including:

Web-based communication - for better and improved communication, anytime anywhere...

video conferencing which allow people in different locations to hold interactive meetings;

e-mails, which provide an instantaneous medium of written communication worldwide;

Reports - important in documenting the activities of any department;

Presentations - very popular method of communication in all types of organizations, usually involving audiovisual material, like copies of reports, or material prepared in Microsoft PowerPoint or Adobe Flash;

telephoned meetings, which allow for long distance speech;

forum boards, which allow people to instantly post information at a centralized location; and

face-to-face meetings, which are personal and should be succeeded by a written followup.

suggestion box,it is mainly for upward communication as because some people may hesitate to communicate to the to management directly so they can give suggestion by drafting suggestion in suggestion box.

Effective Business Communication


Communication is the top quality that employers look for.Effective business communication starts by asking the right questions to understand the customer’s needs and wants to be able to recommend a product or service customized to the customer. One good tip would be to speak, pause, and listen. Communicate what you need and then pause to let the recipient process and respond to the information. With an average of 1800 messages being sent by workers through memos, telephone, email, faxes, and face to face, it is important to listen and pay attention to the recipient and send your information clearly.All in all, to be effective in business communication you need to be clear, brief, focused, and committed. You make an impression on everyone with the way you handle your communication skills from your voice to your body language.

Face-to-face Communication Face-to-face communication helps to establish a personal connection and will help sell the product or service to the customer.These interactions can portray a whole different message than written communication as tone, pitch, and body language is observed.[6] Information is easier to access and delivered immediately with these interactions rather than waiting for an email or phone call. Conflicts are also easily resolved this way as verbal and non-verbal cues are observed and acted upon. Communicating professional is very important as you are representing the company. Speak clearly and ask questions to understand the needs and wants, let the recipient respond as you resolve the issue. Decisions are made more confidently during a face-to-face interaction as the recipient asks questions to understand and move forward with their decision.

Email Communication [7] When using email to communicate in the business world it is important to be careful how things are worded. Miscommunication is very frequent as the reader doesn’t know what non-verbal cues you are giving off, such as the pitch, tone, or expressions. Before beginning an email make sure the email address you are using is appropriate and professional as well as the message you are going to send. Again, make sure the information is clear and to the point so the recipient isn’t confused. Make sure you include your signature, title, and other contact information at the end.

Telephone Communication [8] When making a business call make it clear who you are and where you are from as well as your message when on the phone. Smile and have a positive attitude as the recipient will be able to read you and that will affect how they react. When leaving a message, make sure you are clear and brief. State your name and who you are and why you are calling them as well as contact information. If replying to a voicemail try to respond as soon as possible and take into consideration the time of day. Don’t call to early or too late, as it is important to respect other’s time. Also be mindful of where you are and the noise level as well as the people you are around when trying to reach someone by phone.

When making sales call, hope for the person you are trying to connect to does not answer the phone. Leave up to five enticing messages and your target audience will be ready to speak to you when you either get a call back or your call and reach the person. The enticing message prepares the person to speak with you. It may be that the person is not interested based on what you have said in each voice message. Don't worry, you have not wasted your time. Always be polite and accept that you have many more to call. If you do reach the individual you might ask if there might be someone better suited for your program. If you have reached the correct person and they accept your call you will be way ahead of any competition because you have handled the call appropriately.

If you are calling and leaving voice messages include your time of availability for call backs. There is nothing worst than a call back coming to you and you are not available. Use the telephone as a great communication tool. Be polite and always put yourself in the other person's position. For more tips on making business calls and leaving enticing messages see Harlan J Brown's book on Telephone Participation.

Memorandum Communication Memorandums are straight to the point and used within a company to communicate information to individuals or departments. Make sure the memo includes a subject and stays brief pbut to the point. Include what the recipient needs to do after reading the memo and a signature or initials of whom it is from. Business memos should have a center title in uppercase and to, from, and date aligned to the left. To begin, state the problem, and then discuss the causes of the problem and why it exists, and end with what to do to solve the problem while offering assistance.


The money needed to start the business the operated the business is usually provided by the owner.

Advantages of so proprietorship



Partnership is a legal association of two or more persons... business profit. Are form for many porpoises such as: sharing in the ownership or of propriety, making contracts and operating business.

Advantages and disadvantages a partnership.

Corporations is legally charted interprice or most legalized...

Five characteristic corporation:

1. Specific legal standing

2. In has unlimited life-spend

3. Improved by the state to carry a specific by business



Multinational companies

1. Licensing

2. Exporting

3. Local warehousing and selling

4. Local And packaging

5. Join venture

6. Investment



27.03.2014. of a branch of study..

So the open indeed... the position.. your lives

Principles, demonstrate completion in a genial concern for the will be for others. To be carry,compation

The business financial of emotional.

7. Respect for others priveusly and interests of other people...

8. Low abiding a be the low - by roles, relating the business lortest

9. Commitment and excellence - to possiu excellence all the time and the all...

10. Leadership - affiticals exactly are responsibilities,opportunities, the opposition a leadership

11. Reputation and around try to beal and to tack the company is good reputation and the... with employees

12. Account ability - response ability at knowledge an accept.. of your decision... business process


... conclusion and make decisions. Main tainig a high efecal... To both the.... external

The reasons behind mintinghigh spendens include

1. Improved employee organizational... Than increased ability to at track customers, improved customer loyalty, reduced risk of negative exposure and public backlash because by poor effects.

Extraction of new state holders finally making a positive effect...

Why are business important on office

Developing effectual of a business culture

Business or small...you should insteal in your people a setter more... They can follow. This process a number...

1. You need to dethroning you minimum level... Business approach should ame archive. At this stage you need to consider efical standards you have...


3.04.2014. Non-verbal business communication in France


Defies gave given don't give a business give to...

1. Well know brendname. alcohol and pacts from your country...

Other examples calculator, company is logal...


He role in t

No meter how to you feel.

For business dinners... large

The host subject of conversation. How are you?how do you felling?

Other countries

Entertainment of business contact the consider to best...

South Корея

To be personal question you sellary,religion...

Given gave

1. The first time in some produced in your country




Brazil: Conversation


Brazilian communication is cordial, complex, informal and highly personal.

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