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TRANSLATION OF SPECIFICALLY ENGLISH STRUCTURES

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There is a set of certain structures in the English language, which have no correspondence in the Russian language. To them the following structures are referred: infinitival, gerundial, participial, absolute and other constructions. They may be characterized by a vague semantic connection with the bulk of the sentence and a secondary predication.

 

 

Translation of absolute construction (AC)

Absolute constructions can either precede or follow the main body of the sentence. These constructions can have temporal, causal, conditional, concessional meaning, as well as that of adverbial modifier or attendant circumstances.

There are four designs of absolute constructions: 1) nominative participle; 2) nominative constructions without a participle; 3) participial constructions without a subject; 4) constructions with the preposition “with”.

1) John entered the room, his hands shaking with anxiety.

2) Chin on hand, John stared at Mary inquisitively.

3) Being an excessively proud person, he resented anybody’s help.

4) John looked calm with his fury gone.

The listed constructions present a certain difficulty in the process of translation and require a special handling. A translator needs a special skill in order to render the disguised semantic relations in a more explicit form. Let’s take the following examples.

 

“At midnight, no reply having been received, the two countries entered upon the formal state of war.” – В полночь, когда ответ не получили, страны оказались официально в состоянии войны.

However, one should mind that it is not the only possible translation. There can de other possible variants. E.g. “В полночь, так как официальный ответ не поступил, страны оказались в состоянии войны.” or “В полночь, оставшись без ответа, страны вступили в состояние официальной войны.”

From the above example we can see that there is not a unique correspondence to the translated nominative construction. In the stated case we have translated this structure in a multiple manner, basing on temporal, causal and attending circumstances relationships.

 

There the following ways of translating absolute nominative constructions: a compound sentence clause, a complex sentence clause (main or subordinate), independent sentence, a participial construction (причастие /деепричастие), a prepositional phrase.

1) No objection arising from any quarter, the resolution was adopted. – Никаких возражений не поступило, и резолюцию приняли.

2) Her momentary weakness past, the child again summoned the resolution which had until now sustained her. – “Когда прошла эта минутная слабость, к девочке вновь вернулась ее решительность, которая дотоле придавала ей силы.” or “Эта минутная слабость прошла, в результате чего , к девочке вновь вернулась ее решительность, которая дотоле придавала ей силы.”

3) The enemy plane was shot down by one of our fighters, the crew taken prisoner. – Один из наших истребителей сбил вражеский самолет. Экипаж взяли в плен.

4) The hat sailed far out, and we could see it smaller and smaller, the patent leather shining in the air. – Шляпа полетела далеко, у нас на глазах она становилась все меньше и меньше, блестя лаком в воздухе. (она, блестящая лаком, все дальше удалялась в воздухе).

5) Just as I got there, a black switchman, lantern in hand, happened by. – Как только я подошел туда, появился стрелочник-негр с фонарем в руке.

 


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Читайте в этой же книге: NB : Permanent equivalents provide the translator with reference points helping him/her to choose the appropriate translation variants. | Lecture №2 | GENERALIZATION | GRAMMAR TRANSFORMATIONS | There is no hard and fast dividing line between types of grammatical transformations: replacement of parts of speech and the transposition of words. | Viii © 2002 PLX Technology, Inc. All rights reserved. | Data Assignment Conventions | PCI Target Interface | Bit 60 MHz Local Bus | Експлуатаційні можливості |
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