THE WORK OF MILITIA
Our militia was created by the working people to protect their rights. The officers of our militia have always displayed courage and heroism in the fight against enemies of our state during the Great Patriotic War as well as in the years of peaceful construction.
The main aim of militia has always been to maintain public order, to protect state and personal property and safeguard the rights of our citizens. Nowadays great attention in the work of militia is paid to prevention of crime, to its suppression. But if a crime has been committed, the militia officers are to solve the crime as quickly as possible. To fulfil these tasks the organs of internal affairs are composed of different departments.
The Criminal Detection Department is one of the most compli-cated militia services. The main responsibility of the officer of the Criminal Detection Department is to detect the criminal, that is to locate and apprehend him. In many cases the detective must trace a fugitive who is hiding.
The officers of the Criminal Investigation Department collect facts to prove the guilt or innocence of the suspect. The final test of a criminal investigation is in presentation of evidence in court. Corpus delict8i must be established, the defendant must be identified and associated with the crime scene. The investigator must also provide competent witnesses.
Economic Crimes Department fights against those who don’t want to live an honest life. The responsibility of the officers of this Department is to reveal the criminal activity of those who commit embezzlement and other economic crimes, bring them to justice.
The State Auto-Inspection is responsible for traffic regulation and safety on the roads.
The Transport Militia maintains law and order on the railway, air lines and water ways of the country.
The Juvenile Inspection handles “difficult” juveniles and their careless parents. They also do much work to prevent juvenile delinquency.
The Correctional System is supposed to rehabilitate offenders through labour. This is the purpose of correctional establishments.
A new service for the fight against organized crime has been created in our militia. Organized crime operates on fear, bribery and force. Militia officers of organized crime department are devoting their efforts to collect sufficient evidence to bring gang leaders to justice.
TEXT 3. Переведите на русский язык и ответьте на вопросы
A SYSTEM OF CHECKS AND BALANCES
The first European settlers who came to America wanted a political system that offered stability but limited the power of individuals, so they set up a democratic system.
The American democratic government was established in March 1789 in the Constitution of the United States. In this system, rights and powers are divided between the individual states and the central – or federal – government. The federal government has three branches: the executive, the legislaturem and the judiciary. The power of each branch is carefully balanced by the powers of each of the others.
The Constitution has been changed twenty-six times since 1789. Ten admendments in the Bill of Rights (1791) guaranteed the basic rights of individual Americans. The other sixteen amendments include ones banning slavery (1865) and giving women the right to vote (1920).
Each of the fifty states also has its own government, with a governor, a legislative assembly, and a judiciary. US citizens must be eighteen years okd to vote. Each state also has its own constitution, but all states must respect federal laws.
1. What are the basic principles of a democratic society?
2. What sort of amendments have been made to American Constitution since 1789?
TEXT 4. POLITICAL PARTIES IN THE USA
The two leading national parties are the Democratic Party and the Republican Party. Other smaller parties, such as the Libertarian Party and the Labor Party, do not play a role in national politics.
The United States is such a large and diverse country that it is difficult to label American parties as conservative or liberal. A Democrat from Nebraska probably has quite different views from a Democrat in Florida or New York, but on the whole, Democrats are thought of as more progressive than Republicans.
The major political parties have less power than in some countries, because many voters will vote for an individual candidate rather than for the party that candidate represents. Elected officials do not have to support their party’s program if they do not agree with it.
Presidential candidates are nominated at the Republican and the Democratic conventions. These take place after the candidates have toured the country making speeches and running in primary elections in many states.
The results of the primary elections indicate if a candidate has enough support to be the candidate of his or her party.
What words in the text are synonyms to the following:
1) different, varied;
2) a word or a phrase applied to a person or a group of people which sometimes may be not true
TEXT 5. PARLIAMENT IN THE UK
Parliament in the United Kingdom is based on the principle that the people of the country hold ultimate power. They can exercise this power at least every five years, by voting for the person that they want to represent them in parliament, and by voting in a Government. The Government is made up of around 100 people from the ruling party, chosen by the Prime Minister. The most senior members of the Government are called the Cabinet.
The Government – the elected party – makes all important decisions about how the country is run. However, these decisions have to be approved by parliament, which has the power to force the Government to change its mind when necessary.
It is the job of parliament to make sure that the Government is working properly and in the public interest. Parliament is made up of three institutions: the House of Commons, which has 651 elected representatives called Members of Parliament (or MPs); the House of Lords, which is an unelected second chamber; and the monarchy: the King or Queen.
Every Member of Parliament, no matter what political party he or she belongs to, has to examine the work of the Government. The opposition, which consists of all those parties which are not part of the Government, plays the leading part in this.
Answer the questions:
1. What are the main criteria for the work of the Parliament?
2. How many people actually rule the country?
TEXT 6. THE BRITISH PARLIAMENT AND THE ELECTORAL SYSTEM
The British Parliament consists of the House of Lords and the House of Commons and the Queen as its head.
The House of Commons plays the major role in law-making. It consists of Members of Parliament (called MPs for short), each of whom represents an area in England, Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland. MPs are elected either at a general election, or at a by-election following the death or retirement of an MP.
Parliamentary elections must be held every five years, but the Prime Minister can decide on the exact date within those five years. The minimum voting age is 18, and the voting is taken by secret ballot.
The election campaign lasts about three weeks. The election is decided on a simple majority – the candidate with the most votes wins. An MP who wins by a small number of votes may have more votes against him (that is, for the other candidates) than for him. Many people think that it is unfair because the wishes of those who voted for the unsuccessful candidates are not represented at all.
The British parliamentary system depends on political parties. The political parties choose candidates in elections. The party which wins the majority of seats forms the Government and its leader usually becomes Prime Minister.
The Prime Minister chooses about 20 MPs from his or her party to become the Cabinet of Ministers. Each minister is responsible for a particular area of the government.
The second largest party becomes the official opposition with its own leader and “Shadow cabinet”. Leader of the opposition is a recognized post in the House of Commons.
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