History of Kazakhstan I year students
Lecture 2 All departments
Bronze and iron ages. 2007-2008 academic year
The objective of the lecture:Characteristic of the bronze and iron ages. The main stages of the bronze and iron ages. Historical monuments of this stages. To show the economy and political development and features of culture.
Outline of the lecture:
The changing in the economy and mode of the life of the people of Kazakhstan, which were outlined at the end of Neolithic, resulted in the building of the producing economy. In the II th. B.C. people learned to get bronze by the way of addition of tin, lead and zinc to copper. The bronze is the hard, but at the same time very plastic metal, from which the instruments of labour and weapons were made. The epoch, when this metal was the main one in the life people, named the “Bronze age” It was lasting from the end of the III till I th. B.C.
The tribes, dwelt on the territory of Kazakhstan during the Bronze epoch, left the archaeological monument, dated back to the Andronovskaya archaeological culture. Now the time of existing of this culture is divided by the majority of the researches into three period: the Early Bronze – XVIII-XVI c .B.C.
The Middle - XV – XII c. B.C.
The Late - XII – VIII c. B.C.
The Late Bronze period in Central Kazakhstan was marked by formation of the new culture, which was named Dandybai-Begazinskaya.
During the Bronze age Kazakhstan became the center of metallurgy. Copper, tin, iron were mined in Eastern Kazakhstan and Djezkazgan.
The role of a man in family increased – it was the time of Patriarchy. The Andron people’s main occupations were cattlebreeding, farming and fishing. They grew millet near the rivers, lived in houses and when the climate became dry they began to move from place to place. The Andron people invented houses that could put on carriages and moved with people. They began to nomadize.
The question of the tribe’s language investigated by archaeologists, of the race type of these tribes, and their roots and descendants was the most difficult one in the ancient history. Andronovtsy were considered as European physical type and Indo-Iranian language.
Saks tribes.In the I millennium BC a huge territory, including Northern India, Afghanistan, Middle Asia and South Kazakhstan was populated by numerous tribes, called “Saks”. Saks tribes were contemporaries of skiffs, which lived in Northern Prichernomorie and savromates – in South CisUral.
In Akhemenids sources there are a lot of facts and information about saks. They inform that they were 3 groups: Saks-Haumovarga (Saks that made drink Haom), Saks-paradaraya (Saks that lived across the sea, Saks-tigrahauda (Saks that were pointed caps).
Saks took part in many historical events of that time. So, Kir concluded a peace treating with Saks against the king Krez. Kir’s campaign against Saks was not successful. His army was defeated and he died. Kir’s campaign to the Middle Asia were continued by Dariy I (521-486) but he was also defeated. At the end of VI beg. of V c. B.C. in ancient East were taking place Greek-Persian wars. Some Saks tribes took part in those wars being on the side of Persians. Greek-Persian wars (500-449) ended with the defeat of Persians. In 30-s B.C. Greek-makedonians under the control of Alexandr Makedonsky defeated the army of the last Ahemenid of Dariy III and entered the Middle Asia. Massagets and other tribes, living in the Southern Kazakhstan participated in wars against Alexandr Makedonsky. Saks tribes which lived in the area of Syrdaria kept their independence. After the death of Alexander Makedonsky his huge empire was diunated because it was just a union of tribes and nations who didn’t have strong economic and political relations.
1. Асфендияров С.Д. История Казахстана (с древних времен): Уч. Пособие / Под ред. А.С.Такенова. – Алма-Ата, 1993. – 2-е изд.
2. История Казахстана с древнейших времен до наших дней. Очерк. – Алматы: Дэуир, 1993.
3. История Казахстана: Пособие для студентов. – Алматы: Казинтерграф, 1998.
4. Кан Г.В. История Казахстана: Учеб. Пособие. – Алматы: ВШП Эдилет, 2000.
5. Оразбаева А.И. Курс лекций по истории Казахстана для студентов неисторических факультетов. Часть 1. Древняя и средневековая история Казахстана. – Алматы: Казак университетi, 2001.
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