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The European Court of Human Rights

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The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) is based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which was adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1948. This Declaration sought to define a set of individual rights which were considered to be fundamental to the will – being of citizens of all countries. The Declaration included the right to an adequate standard of living.

The Convention is concerned mainly with civil and political rights. The rights included in the convention include the right to life, the right to liberty and security of person the right not to be subjected to inhuman or degrading treatment, not to be required to perform forced or compulsory labour, the right to a fair hearing to respect for private life, to freedom of thought, conscience and religion, to freedom of expression and assembly and free elections. These and the other provisions of the ECHR are called Articles.

The parties to the Convention are Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxemburg, Malta, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom, Ukraine and Russia.

The European Court of Human Rights was established by the European Convention forthe Protection of Human rights and Fundamental Freedoms and was set up in Strasbourg in 1959. The Convention which was drawn up by the Council of Europe in 1950, was inspired by the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 and protects many essential rights such as the right to life, freedom from torture and slavery, freedom of thought, conscience and religion the right tomarry and found a family, freedom of peaceable assembly and association, and the right to afair trial.

The European Court of Human Rights is composed of twenty-one judges, one for each member state. Occasionally all judges sit on a case, but usually cases are heard by a panel of no more than seven. The hearings are oral, and the court has funds available toprovide legal aid for individual complainants to be legally represented. Only states which are parties to the Convention have the rights to bring a case before the Court.

 

III. Agree or disagree with the statements:

1. The European Court of Human Rights was set up in Paris in 1945.

2. The European Convention for the Human Rights Protection was established in 1950.

3. The European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights protects many essential rights of the individual.

4. The European Court of Human Rights is composed of twenty-one judges.

5. All judges always sit on a case.

6. Usually cases are heard by a panel.

7. The hearings are oral.

8. No more than seven judges try a case.

9. All states have the right to bring a case before the court.

10. Ukraine is a member of Convention.

 

IV. Answer the questions:

1. Who established the European Court of Human Rights?

2. When and where was the Court Founded?

3. When and where was the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights made?

4. What states have the right to bring the case before the court?

5. How many judges is the European Court of Human Rights composed by?

 

V. Match the first part of the sentence (1-5) with the second one (a-e).

The European Court of Human Rights is composed a mainly with civil and political rights.
The European Court of Human Rights was established by the European Convention b of twenty-one judges, one for each member state.
The Convention is concerned c to an adequate standard of living.
The Declaration included the right d but usually cases are heard by a panel of no more than seven.
Occasionally all judges hear a case, e forthe Protection of Human rights.

 

VI. Make up a plan of the text.

VII. Retell the text in a written form (in English or Ukrainian).

UNIT 7. CRIMINAL LAW. LAW-ENFORCEMENT BODIES TEXT 71. HOW IS THE LAW ENFORCED?

I. Read and memorize the following words and word combinations:

To obey – підкорятись, to investigate – розслідувати, offence – правопорушення, to pass a sentence – винести вирок, to punish – покарати, to prohibit – забороняти, to prosecute – обвинувачувати, to impose a fine – обкласти штрафом.

II. Listen to the text:

How is the Law Enforced?

Governments have many ways of making sure that citizens obey the law. They make the public aware of what the law is and try to encourage social support for law and order. They use police forces to investigate crimes and catch criminals. They authorize courts to complete the investigation of criminal and civil offences and to pass sentences to punish the guilty and deter others. And they make efforts to re-educate and reform people who have broken the law.



The laws of all countries are to be found in written records. Many people do not know where to find these records and do not find it easy to read them. But ignorance of the law is almost never a defence for breaking it. Governments usually expect citizens to be aware of the laws which affect their lives. There are many laws, such as those prohibiting theft, assault and dangerous driving, which reflect social and moral attitudes to everyday behavior. In such cases a person knows he is breaking the law, even if he doesn't know exactly which law it is.

The police have many functions in the legal process. Though they are mainly concerned with criminal law, they may also be used to enforce judgments made in civil courts. As well as gathering information for offences to be prosecuted in the courts, the police have wide powers to arrest, search and question people suspected of crimes and to control the actions of members of the public during public demonstrations and assemblies.

In some countries, the police have judicial functions; for example, they may make a decision as to guilt in a driving offense and impose a fine, without the involvement of a court.

In England and Wales there are 43 police forces. Police officers are not employees of the state or of local government. At the same time, like any other citizen, they are answerable to both the ordinary criminal and civil law, as well as to the police disciplinary procedures.

III. Agree or disagree with the statements:

1. Governments have few ways of making sure that citizens obey the law.

2. The state encourages social support for law and order.

3. The police forces investigate crimes, catch criminals and complete the investigation of criminal and civil offences.

4. Local bodies pass sentences to punish the guilty and make efforts to re-educate people who have broken the law.

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5. The laws of all countries are to be found in written records.

6. Ignorance of the law is almost usually a defence for breaking it.

7. Governments usually expect citizens to be aware of the laws.

8. In all countries, the police have judicial functions.

9. In England and Wales police officers are not employees of the state or of local government.

10. In some countries, the police have executive functions.

IV. Answer the questions:

1. What bogies have the power to complete the investigation of criminal and civil offences and to pass sentences to punish the guilty?

2. Do a lot of people find it easy to read the laws?

3. Is a person breaking the law, if he doesn't know exactly which law it is?

4. What functions do the police have in the legal process?

5. Do the courts have the right to arrest, search and question people suspected of crimes?

V. Match the first part of the sentence (1-5) with the second one (a-e).

In some countries, a to investigate crimes and catch criminals.
The police are mainly concerned with criminal law, b that citizens obey the law.
Local governments use police forces c the police have judicial functions.
Governments make the public aware of what the law is d but also may be used to enforce judgments made in civil courts.
Governments have many ways of making sure e and try to encourage social support for law and order.

VI. Make up a plan of the text.

VII. Retell the text in a written form (in English or Ukrainian).

TEXT 72. SCOTLAND YARD

I. Read and memorize the following words and word combinations:

 

Headquarters – штаб-квартира, royalty – королівська сім’я, jurisdiction – юрисдикція, responsibility – відповідальність, to maintain – підтримувати, забезпечувати, to carry out – виконувати.

II. Listen to the text:

Scotland Yard

Scotland Yard is the name of the headquarters office of the Metropolitan Police. It is so called because the building where the first Commissioners set up their office in 1829 backed into Scotland Yard buildings forming part of the old palace of Whitehall where Scottish royalty were lodged when they visited the English Court.

These headquarters soon became known as “Scotland Yard” and when, in 1890, the office was moved to the present site it was named “New Scotland Yard”.

Now it is the central office for the administration and control of the twenty-three police divisions of the Metropolitan Police, which has police jurisdiction throughout Greater London. This force is the largest in the country and has an authorized establishment of about 20, 000.

The Metropolitan Police are the one exception to the general principle of local. The police authority in this instance is the Home Secretary, and he is personally responsible for the administration of this force, though responsibility for the actual day-to-day management and the way in which its members carry out their duties is the concern of the Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis.

The Metropolitan Police Force has certain national functions: it maintains criminal records on behalf al police forces; it circulates information about crime; it is the National Bureau for the International Criminal Police Commission; and it provides police protection for important personages and for the Houses of Parliament. Furthermore, some of the work of the Special Branch of the CID (Criminal Investigation Department) is on a nation-wide scale.

III. Agree or disagree with the statements:

1. Scotland Yard is the name of the office of the metropolitan Police.

2. In 1890 the office was moved to the present site.

3. Scotland Yard is the central office for the administration and control of the twenty-three police divisions of the Metropolitan Police.

4. The Metropolitan Police have no police jurisdiction throughout Greater London.

5. The Metropolitan Police are the one exception to the general principle of state control.

6. Home Secretary is personally responsible for the administration of the force.

7. Responsibility for the actual day- to day management is the concern of the Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis.

8. The Metropolitan Police Force circulates information about road accidents.

9. The Metropolitan Police Force provides police protection for the House of Parliament.

10. All work of the Special Branch of the CID is on a nation - wide scale.

IV. Answer the questions:

1. What is the name of the headquarters office of the Metropolitan Police?

2. How many police divisions are there in the Metropolitan Police?

3. Who is personally responsible for the administration of the Metropolitan Police?

4. Does the Metropolitan Police Force have a right to maintain criminal records?

5. Who provides police protection for the Houses of Parliament?

V. Match the first part of the sentence (1-5) with the second one (a-e).

Some of the work of the Criminal Investigation Department a to the general principle of local.
The Metropolitan Police Force has certain national functions: b is on a nation-wide scale.
The Metropolitan Police are the one exception c of the Metropolitan Police.
The Metropolitan Police has d it maintains criminal records on behalf al police forces.
Scotland Yard is the name of the headquarters office e police jurisdiction throughout Greater London.

VI. Make up a plan of the text.

VII. Retell the text in a written form (in English or Ukrainian).

TEXT 73. LAWYERS AT WORK

I. Read and memorize the following words and word combinations:

A lawyer – юрист, to provide legal serv­ices – надавати юридичні послуги, a court case – судова справа, to pose ethical problems – створити етичні проблеми, privileged – захищений, привілейований, weakness – недолік.

II. Listen to the text:

Lawyers at Work

Every legal system needs professionals to provide legal services. These systems are organized in many different ways. Even lawyers with the same qualifications and professional title may be doing very different kinds of work. Most towns in the United States, for example, have small firms of attorneys who are in daily contact with ordinary people, giving advice and acting on matters such as consumer affairs, traffic accident disputes and contracts for the sale of land. Some may also prepare defences for clients accused of crimes.

However, in both the United States and other industrialized countries, lawyers are becoming more and more specialized. Working in small firms, lawyers now tend to restrict themselves to certain kinds of work, and lawyers working in large law firms or employed in the law department of a large commercial enterprise work on highly specific areas of law.

As well as the type of work, the working conditions and pay among members of the legal profession also vary greatly. For some people, the image of a lawyer is someone who leads a very wealthy and comfortable life. However, it should not be forgotten that there are also lawyers whose lives are not so secure. The Wall Street attor­ney probably earns a high salary, but the small firm giving advice to members of the public on welfare rights or immigration procedures may have to restrict salaries in order to stay in business.

There are lawyers in developing countries whose business with fee-paying cli­ents subsidizes the work they agree to do for little or no payment for citizens' rights groups. Lawyers involved in human rights may even find their profession is a dangerous one. Even if a lawyer is very competent, he must take care not to break the many rules of procedure and ethics set by the body which regulates his profession.

In most legal systems, conversations between a lawyer and his client are privileged: the client should know that what he says will not be passed on to someone else without his permission. In theory, this could pose difficult ethical problems for a lawyer; for instance, what should he do in a criminal case if he believes his client is guilty? The lawyer must first decide how sure he is of the client's guilt. In any case, it is the prosecution's job to prove guilt, not the defence's to prove innocence. A lawyer could therefore defend his client simply by trying to point out weaknesses in the prosecution case.

III. Agree or disagree with the statements:

1. Every legal system needs professionals to provide legal services.

2. The lawyers with the same qualifications and professional title may do very different kinds of work.

3. Big firms of attorneys are in daily contact with ordinary people.

4. The working conditions and pay among members of the legal profession vary.

5. The image of a lawyer is someone who leads a very miserable life.

6. Lawyers involved in human rights may even find their profession is a dangerous one.

7. A lawyer doesn’t have to take care not to break the rules of procedure or ethics.

8. What the client says may be passed on to someone else without his permission.

9. It is the lawyer's job to prove guilt.

10. A lawyer could defend his client by pointing out weaknesses in the prosecution.

IV. Answer the questions:

1. Why are the lawyers becoming more and more specialized?

2. Do the working conditions and pay among the lawyers vary?

3. What is the image of a lawyer for some people?

4. What are the principals of conversations between a lawyer and his client?

5. Who has the right to prove guilt or innocence?

V. Match the first part of the sentence (1-5) with the second one (a-e).

Even if a lawyer is very competent, he must take care a may be doing very different kinds of work.
The working conditions and pay b to provide legal services.
In the United States lawyers c among members of the legal profession also vary greatly.
Even lawyers with the same qualifications and professional title d not to break the many rules of procedure and ethics.
Every legal system needs professionals e are becoming more and more specialized.

VI. Make up a plan of the text.

VII. Retell the text in a written form (in English or Ukrainian).

TEXT 74. MURDER

I. Read and memorize the following words and word combinations:

Abolition – заборона, capital punishment – вища міра покарання, a departure – відхід, spirit of revenge – дух помсти, in cold blood – холоднокровно, deterrent – захисний, an assassin – вбивця.

II. Listen to the text:

Murder

The abolition of capital punishment in England in November 1965 was welcomed by most people with humane and progressive ideas. To them it seemed a departure from feudalism, from the cruel pre-Christian spirit of revenge: an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth

Many of these people think differently now. Three unarmed policemen have been killed in London by bandits who shot them down in cold blood. This crime has drawn attention to the fact that since the abolition of capital punishment crime - and especially murder - has been on increase throughout Britain. Today, therefore, public opinion in Britain has changed. People who before, also in Parliament, stated that capital punishment was not a deterrent to murder - for there have always been murders in all countries with or without the law of execution - now feel that killing the assassin is the lesser of two evils. Capital punishment, they think, may not be the ideal answer, but it is better than nothing, especially when, as in England, a sentence of "lifelong" imprisonment (a life sentence, as it is called) only lasts eight or nine years.

All this is very controversial. And all the arguments for and against can be refuted in practice. The problem remains - the problem of how to prevent murders. Some murders are committed by criminals evading arrest, by insane or mentally disturbed people, by cold-blooded sadists completely devoid of all human feelings. The important thing in the prevention of murder is to eliminate as far as possible the weapons and instruments, the guns and knives, with which these crimes are committed, and furthermore to stop the dangerous influence of violence in books, films, television and other mass media, from which so many criminals derive their "inspiration".

 

III. Agree or disagree with the statements:

 

1. Capital punishment was allowed in England in 1965.

2. The abolition of capital punishment was welcomed by most people.

3. People thought that the capital punishment abolishment was a departure from feudalism.

4. Spirit of revenge dominated in the epoch of feudalism.

5. Four armed policemen have been killed in New York.

6. Today, public opinion in Britain remains the same.

7. Now people feel that killing the assassin is the lesser of two evils.

8. The problem of how to prevent murders remains vital in the modern world.

9. The important thing in the prevention of murder is to eliminate as far as possible the weapons and instruments.

10. Mass media and television have considerable influence on many criminals.

IV. Answer the questions:

1. What did most people with humane and progressive ideas think about the abolition of capital punishment in England?

2. Why have these people changed their opinion these days?

3. What is the modern punishment for murder in the United Kingdom?

4. How long does the life sentence last in Britain?

5. What can criminal derive their “inspiration” from?

V. Match the first part of the sentence (1-5) with the second one (a-e).

The important thing in the prevention of murder a with which these crimes are committed.
One way to prevent murder is to eliminate the weapons and instruments, b is to stop the dangerous influence of violence in mass media.
Some murders are committed c by most people with humane and progressive ideas.
The problem remains - d by insane or mentally disturbed people.
The abolition of capital punishment in England was welcomed e the problem of how to prevent murders.

VI. Make up a plan of the text.

VII. Retell the text in a written form (in English or Ukrainian).

UNIT 8. FINANCIAL LAW. TAXES AND TAXATION

TEXT 75. BANKS

I. Read and memorize the following words and word combinations:

Tobe concerned - бути пов’язаним, an effort – спроба, to prevent – запобігати, to originate – брати початок,current accountпоточний рахунок,aprofit прибуток, an interest – відсоток, liabilities – пасиви, assets – активи, to lend excess fund - надавати кредит.

II. Listen to the text:

Banks

Banks are closely concerned with the flow of money into and out of the economy. They often co-operate with governments in efforts to stabilize economies and to prevent inflation. They are specialists in the business of providing capital, and in allocating funds on credit. Banks originated as places to which people took their valuables for safe-keeping, but today the great banks of the world have many functions in addition to acting as guardians of valuable private possessions.

Banks normally receive money from their customers in two distinct forms: on current account, and on deposit account. With a current account, a customer can issue personal cheques. No interest is paid by the bank on this type of account. With a deposit account, however, the customer undertakes to leave his money in the bank for a mini­mum specified period of time. Interest is paid on this money.

The bank in turn lends the deposited money to customers who need capital. This activity earns interest for the bank, and this interest is almost always at a higher rate than any interest which the bank pays to its depositors. In this way the bank makes its main profits.

 

III. Agree or disagree with the statements:

1. Nearly everyone deals with a bank

2. Banks help circulate money

3. Banks accept deposit from individuals and business.

4. Banks pay interest to depositors.

5. Banks do not receive interest from borrowers.

6. All people understand how banks make the economy grow.

7. Bank often co-operate with governments in efforts to stabilize economies and to prevent inflation.

8. Banks receive money from their customers in two distinct forms: on current account, and on deposit account.

9. The bank lends the deposited money to customers who need capital.

10. Banks are concerned with the flow of money into and out of the economy.

IV. Answer the questions:

1. In what way do banks co-operate with government?

2. What was the original function of a bank?

3. In what two ways do banks receive money from their customers?

4. How does the bank make its main profit?

5. In what way might the bank try to attract more depositors?

 

V. Match the first part of the sentence (1-5) with the second one (a-e).

The bank lends the deposited money a with the flow of money into and out of the economy.
Banks normally receive money from their customers in two distinct forms: b took their valuables for safe-keeping.
Banks originated as places to which people c to stabilize economies and to prevent inflation.
Banks often co-operate with governments in efforts d on current account, and on deposit account.
Banks are closely concerned e to customers who need capital.

 

VI. Make up a plan of the text.

VII. Retell the text in a written form (in English or Ukrainian).

 

TEXT 76. MONEY

I. Read and memorize the following words and word combinations:

To measure – вимірювати, a transaction – угода, adequate – достатній, a store – запас, currency – валюта, to be available – бути наявним, borrowed money – позичка, credit (dept) money – кредитні гроші, ready (hard) money – готівка, to invest money – вкладати гроші.

II. Listen to the text:

Money

All values in the economic system are measured in terms of money. Our goods and services are sold for money, and that money is in turn exchanged for other goods and services. Coins are adequate for small transactions, while paper notes are used for general business. There is additionally a wider sense of the word “money”, covering anything which is used as a means of exchange, whatever form it may take. Originally, a valuable metal (gold, silver or copper) served as a constant store of value, and even today the American dollar is technically «backed» by the store of gold which the US government maintains. Because gold has been universally regarded as a very valuable metal, national currencies were for many years judged in terms of the so-called “gold standard”. Nowadays however national currencies are considered to be as strong as the national economies which support them.

The value of money is basically its value as a medium of exchange, or, as economists put it, its “purchasing power”. This purchasing power is dependent on supply and demand. The demand for money is reckonable as the quantity needed to effect business transactions. An increase in business requires an increase in the amount of money coming into general circulation. But the demand for money is related not only to the quantity of business but also to the rapidity with which the business is done. The supply of money on the other hand, is the actual amount in notes and coins, available for business purposes. If too much money is available, its value decreases, and it does not buy as much as it did, say, five years earlier. This condition is known as «inflation».

 

III. Agree or disagree with the statements:

1. All values in the economic system are measured in terms of money.

2. Our goods and services are sold for money.

3. Coins are adequate for large transactions.

4. Paper notes are used for general business.

5. A valuable metal served as a constant store of value.

6. Nowadays national currencies are considered to be as strong as the national economies.

7. The demand of money is the actual amount in notes and coins available for business purposes.

8. The supply of money is reckonable as the quantity needed to effect national economy.

9. The demand for money is related only to the quantity of business.

10. Money serves as a store of value.

 

IV. Answer the questions:

1. How are all values in the economic system measured?

2. What kind of money is used for general business?

3. What is the wider sense of the word “money”?

4. What originally served as a store of value?

5. What is inflation?

 

V. Match the first part of the sentence (1-5) with the second one (a-e).

If too much money is available, a are measured in terms of money.
The value of money is basically b its value decreases.
Coins are adequate for small transactions, c and money is exchanged for other goods and services.
Our goods and services are sold for money, d while paper notes are used for general business.
All values in the economic system e its value as a medium of exchange.

 

VI. Make up a plan of the text.

VII. Retell the text in a written form (in English or Ukrainian).

TEXT 77. PRICING

I. Read and memorize the following words and word combinations:

Deal-making process- торг, to settle a price - домовлятися в ціні, retailing– торгівля в роздріб, revenue – дохід, cost price – собівартість, price control – контроль над цінами, price level – рівень цін, pricing –калькуляція цін, purchase price – купівельна ціна.

II. Listen to the text:

Pricing

All products and services have prices. A price depends on different factors, for example, credit terms, delivery, trade-in-allowance, quality etc.

Through most of history, prices were set by buyers and sellers communicating with each other: sellers asked for a higher price than they expected to get, and buyers offered less than they expected to pay. So, through deal - making process they settled a reasonable price.

The necessity of setting one price for all buyers arose with the development of large-scale retailing at the end of the 19th century. In modern business a price is the only element in the marketing mix that produces revenue: the other elements represent cost.

Companies handle pricing in a variety of ways. In small companies prices are often set by top management rather than by the marketing or sales department. In large companies pricing is typically handled by divisional and product-line managers. In industries where pricing is a key factor (aerospace, oil companies, railroads), companies often establish a pricing department to set prices or assist others in determining appropriate prices. This department reports either to the marketing department or top department. Others who influence the pricing are sales managers, production managers, finance managers and accountants.

III. Agree or disagree with the statements:

1. All products and services have prices.

2. A price depends on two factors: credit terms and delivery.

3. Prices were set by sellers and banks.

4. Through deal- making process sellers and buyers settled a reasonable price.

5. The necessity of setting one price for all buyers arose with the development of large- scale retailing at the end of the 19th century.

6. Companies handle pricing in a variety of ways.

7. Prices play an important role in all economic markets.

8. In industries where pricing is a key factor, companies often establish a pricing department to set prices or assist others in determining appropriate prices.

9. Prices are fixed in most economic systems.

10. Sales managers, production managers, finance managers and accountants influence the pricing.

 

IV. Answer the questions:

 

1. Which factors does a price depend on?

2. How were prices set long ago?

3. Why did the necessity of setting one price for all buyers arise?

4. How do companies handle pricing?

5. What role do prices play in all economic markets?

V. Match the first part of the sentence (1-5) with the second one (a-e).

In small companies prices are often set by top management a with the development of large-scale retailing.
Companies handle pricing b for example, credit terms, delivery, trade-in-allowance, quality etc.
The necessity of setting one price for all buyers arose c in a variety of ways.
Prices were set by buyers and sellers d rather than by the marketing or sales department.
A price depends on different factors, e communicating with each other.

 

VI. Make up a plan of the text.

VII. Retell the text in a written form (in English or Ukrainian).

 

TEXT 78. TAXES IN UKRAINE

I. Read and memorize the following words and word combinations:

Obligatory payment – обов’язковий платіж, payment/fee – плата, to impose a tax – обкладати податком, direct/indirect tax – прямий/непрямий податок, customs duty – митний збір, property tax – податок на власність, excise tax – акцизний збір, income tax – податок на прибуток, value added tax (VAT) – податок на додану вартість.

II. Listen to the text:


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